- Ghandarva Vidya
- Artha Vēda or Shilpa Vidya
- Negantu/ Neruktam
- Pūrva Memāmsa
- Maha Bharatha
First Prashna (Question)
- Sukēsha (Bharadwājā’s son), Shibi Kumara, Sathyakāma, Gārgya (Sourya’s son), Koushlya (son of Ashwala), Vydarbhi (son of Vidarbhi and belonging to Brrugu Gōthra), and Kabandhi (son of Kātyāyana) approached Maharshi Pippala with lamps in their hands in order to acquire the knowledge of Brahmam.
- Then Maharshi Pippala asked them to stay in his Āshrama for a year and do penance with Brahmacharya and Shraddha. After that they should ask any questions of interest and he would reply to whatever he knows.
- After one year Kabandhi approached Maharshi Pippala and said, “Swāmi, due to whom these people, the entire living beings and matter is born?”
- Then Pippala replied, “Prajāpathi due to his natural instinct did penance and created the pair Raē (spell as Ra e) and Prānnam (life). Then these two in this creation produced all types of living beings and matter”.
- “Ādithya (Sun) is Prānnam and this known to everyone, and Chandra is Raē. All minute and developed structures are definitely Raē and these are for consumption only”.
- Sūrya with its rays enters from the eastern side and injects the rays into the Prānna Shakthi (Energy). Similarly it does in every direction and injects its rays into every Prānna Shakthi in on the earth.
- Ādithya makes everyone to work in their own business and is the primary energy for every living and non living entity. Ādithya is the Prānna, Agni and Energy of the Universe.
- The object that has infinite rays, spreads in every matter with its brilliance, and is the Prānna for every living being is the visible Sūrya that rises in the morning. It is the Energy provider, full of rays and is the place for vision and beauty. Scholars know this Sūrya as the one that gives residence for the living beings and also which makes them work.
- This Ādithya is responsible for production of Time that rules the people. In a year this time is divided into Utharāyanna (When day time is more in Northern hemisphere) and Dakshinnāyanna (When night time is more in Northern hemisphere) because of the motion of Sun. People who work and do good deeds expecting good results for them take rebirth and enjoy their life on Earth. This is called as Pitruyānna or Dakshinnāyanna path. This is also called Raē or the one that is to be consumed.
- Those people who does penance with Brahmacharya, Shraddha, Vidya will know the almighty and win the Prānna Shakthi Ādithya. This almighty is the head of Prānna and is the Prānna Shakthi for Prānna Shakthi Ādithya. This almighty is indestructible, fearless and ultimate. People who do Upāsana of this almighty will not take rebirth. This is called Utharāyanna or Dēvayānna.
- Some scholars define Ādithya with five parts (Six seasons put into five parts), twelve shapes (12 months), residing on the other side of space, and responsible for production of water. Some other scholars define Ādithya as having seven wheels (Bhōr, Bhuvaha, Swaha, Mahaha, Janaha, Thapaha and Sathyam), each with six spokes (Six seasons) and that illuminates everything in this Universe.
- A month is also defined as Prajāpathi. For this month, from full moon day to new moon day is Raē. And from new moon to full moon is Prānna. That is why Rishis perform all rituals during the Prānna days and others perform even during Raē days. Those who perform rituals during Raē days do not realize the importance of Prānna Shakthi.
- Even day and night are considered as Prajāpathi. Day time is considered Prānna and night is considered as Raē. Those who perform intercourse with a woman during day time will diminish their Prānna Shakthi and those who perform intercourse only in the night time are considered still as following Brahmacharyam.
- Even Annam is considered as Prajāpathi. Because of food, semen is developed in the body and this semen is responsible for reproduction.
- Therefore who performs this Prajāpālaka Vratham (reproduction activity) will develop family and those who do penance with Sathyam, and Brahmacharyam will only get to Brahmam.
- In whose mind there is no untruth, crookedness, and cheating attitude only will be able to get the chance of attaining Brahmam.
- Then Vydarbhi approached Maharshi Pippala and asked, “Swami in the creation of God how many Dēvathas are inside our body and among them which Dēvatha is prominent?”
- Then Pippala replied, “This body is embodied with this bright Ākāsham, Vāyu, Agni, Jalam, Prithvi, Vāk, Manassu, Chakshu, and Shrōthram etc., and are providing energy. Among these some are Gyan Indriyās and some are Karma Indriyās and some are Pancha Bhūthās”.
- “Prānna divides itself into five parts and also Prānna feels it is the only one which bears this body and protects the body”.
- “But all other Indriyās did not care about Prānna. So Prānna decided to teach a lesson to all Indriyās and left the body. Indriyās could not sustain inside the body and realized the importance of Prānna and praised it as the best among all of them”.
- “This Prānna is the one which is in different forms as Agni that heats, Sūrya that radiates, Cloud that rains, this causes richness, Vāyu that purifies, Prithvi that accommodates, and Raē that is small and big and indestructible”.
- “Just like spokes in the wheel, all Vēdas, Yagna, Kshātram and knowledge are inserted in the Prānna”.
- “All objects praise Prānna as the one that is ruling the Universe, the one that is in the womb, the one that is getting birth, the one that is in different forms like Prānna, Apāna etc., and for this Prānna people eat food”.
- “Also Prānna is present as a divine material in all Dēvathās and is useful as a conductor of properties and things. This Prānna gives joy to Pitharas; it is the definite aim for penance and Truth implementation for Rishis”.
- “Hey Prānna! You are the Indra, you are the Rudra, you are the protector, you move in Ākāsham and you are the protector of all stars and you are the Sun”.
- “Hey Prānna! When you rain these living beings get joy due to getting abundant food”.
- “Hey Prānna! You do not require any purification because you are always pure and mobile. You are the one responsible for enjoying materials. You are the one that produces Vāyu”.
- “Hey Prānna! You are in the form Apāna in the Vāk, as Vyāna in the Shravanna, as Prānna in the Nēthram and as Samāna in Manassu. Please make this body active and do not leave the body”.
- “Hey Prānna! You are in control of the three worlds. Please protect us as a mother protects her children. Give us enlightenment and knowledge”.
- Now Koushlya approached Pippala and asked, “Swami, from what does this Prānna evolve? How does it enter the body? How does it divide itself into different forms and how does it stabilize inside the body? How does it exit from the body and how does it bear the external knowledge, joy and sufferings?”
- Then Pippala replied, “You are asking excellent questions. I will definitely give answers for them”.
- “This Prānna is born due to Paramāthma and just as shade is present when an object is present, similarly this Prānna exists when Āthma is present in the body. This Prānna enters this body because of the Karmas associated with the soul”.
- “As the king authorizes persons to be in charge of some posts, similarly Prānna authorizes other Prānna to be in charge of activities”.
- “Apāna is in charge of excretion and reproduction organs. Prānna is present in the face and is in charge of Eyes, Nose, Ears and Mouth and Samāna is present in the naval and is in charge of digestion and distribution of food. Because of all these Eyes, Ears, Nose and Mouth function well”.
- “Jēvāthma or Āthma is present in the Brain. In this brain there are 101 main nerves. From each one of these main nerves, 100 sub-nerves are emerged. And from each one of these sub-nerves emerge 72,000 minute nerves. In all of these Vyāna is propagating.”
- “In one of the main nerves resides Udānam and is responsible in carrying the soul and placing it different bodies after death. It is present above the Naval and carries a soul of a Yogi to salvation, a soul of sinner to lower animal bodies and a soul of mixed nature to human body”.
- “Similar to Prānna inside the body, Sūrya is Prānna for outside body (Virāt) and helps in the human body and stabilizes it. Vāyu present on earth is Apāna for Virāt and Ākāsham is Samāna”.
- ” Heat in the body is Udāna and when it subsides in the body, soul with Manassu enters into another body”.
- “Throughout the life whatever Karmas a person does, all are stored in the memory of the soul. When this person dies the soul takes this memory and with the help of Udāna enters a new body which is suitable for the print stored in memory”. [That means we design our own future body due to our past karmas].
- “The scholar who knows the Prānna in this way will have fame and his generation will also be famous”.
- “Scholars who know about the entry of Prānna as birth, division of Prānna, place of Prānna, spreading of Prānna and activity of Prānna will get salvation or Mukthi”.
- Then Gārgya asked Pippala, “Swāmi, among the Indriyās which of them are in sleeping state and which of them are in awaken state? Among these all which Dēvatha dreams and who gets the pleasure? In which or in whom all living beings and matter are stabilized?”
- Then Pippala replied, “Just as the Sun sets all the rays are accumulated in the space and at dawn all the rays from the Sun again spread on the Earth, similarly all the Indriyās get accumulated inside the Manassu. Due to this reason at that time human beings cannot hear, or see, or smell, or touch, or taste, or walk, or talk, or catch, or enjoy any pleasure and excrete. Then the person is said to be sleeping”.
- “When a person is sleeping, Panchāgnis will be in awakening state and will be continually doing their works. Apāna is like Gārhapatyāgni, Vyāna is Dakshināgni and Prānna is like Āhavaniyāgni. [Gārhapatyāgni is the support of Dakshināgni and Āhavaniyāgni. From Gārhapatyāgni, fire is taken to use for cooking and also fire is taken to perform havan which is called Āhavaniyāgni].
- “Samāna is responsible in inhaling and exhaling and does it equally so it is called Samāna (equal). Jēvāthma is the Yajamān and Udāna is the result expected from the control of Samāna with the help of Prānnāyāma. This Udāna is responsible in carrying Jēvāthma to Brahmam”.
- “Jēvāthma sees Mahathwam (wonders) in dreams. Whatever it sees during awaken state is once again seen in dream. Whatever is heard and whatever is felt in different places and directions is heard and felt in dream. Sometimes it sees the past life experiences also in the dreams. All the living beings experience this dream phenomenon”.
- “When Jēvāthma is covered by Thējas, it does not dream and experiences joy. This state is called Sushupthi and during this state Jēvāthma is with Paramāthma”.
- Pippala further said, “as birds stay well inside their nests during night, similarly all that I would be telling in the coming slōkās will reside very stable in Paramāthma”.
- “Pancha Bhūthās, Gyānēndriyās and the matter perceived by them, Karmēndriyās and the works performed by them, Manassu and the thought process, Buddhi, Chittam, Ahankāra and their matter, Thējas and its brilliance, Prānna and that it supports are all in Paramāthma”.
- “The one that resides inside the body and sees with eyes, hears with ears, touches with skin, smells with nose, tastes with tongue, thinks with mind, knows with Buddhi, does work with hands and legs, is knowledgeable, and is minute is called Jēvāthma. This Jēvāthma is indestructible and is inside Paramāthma”.
- “The scholar, who knows the shapeless, bodiless, bloodless, pure, indestructible Paramāthma, will definitely acquire salvation and become all knowledgeable”.
- “The knowledgeable scholar with his/her Indriyās, Pancha Prānnās, and Pancha Bhūthās reside inside the indestructible Paramāthma. When the scholar realizes this fact, will gain the knowledge about the entire Universe and get salvation”.
- Now Sathyakāma approached Pippala and asked, “Swāmi, which world will the scholar definitely win, on meditating ‘AUM’ throughout his/her life?”
- Then Pippala said, “The knowledgeable scholar due to his meditation will definitely win either Para (salvation) or Apara (worldly joys) Brahmam”.
- “If the scholar does meditation even on one Māthra of ‘AUM’, he will become quickly knowledgeable and Mantrās will make him/her win the Earth and make him/her enjoy the wonders with Brahmacharya”.
- “If meditation is done on two Māthrās, then he/she will be blessed with stable mind and Yajus Mantrās will take him/her to Chandra Lōka and will enjoy the wealth and come back”.
- “If meditation is done on all the three Māthrās, then the person will attain Brahmam and enjoy the bliss. Just like a snake leaves its outer skin, similarly this person who meditates on the three Māthrās of ‘AUM’ will get rid of all sins and acquire salvation”.
- “These three Māthrās of ‘AUM’ are well interrelated and do not get separated from one another. When the three Māthrās are well used in the inner, medium and outer Kriyā of meditation, then the scholar will not be disturbed for anything”.
- “This scholar will acquire materialistic knowledge from Rig Vēda and enjoy all that is in the Earth. He/she will acquire all the love and affection from the people due to his performance in Agnihōtra and other Karmas. Also this scholar will get salvation and acquire Brahmam. This Brahmam is peaceful, indestructible, unchangeable, fearless minute”.
- Then Sukēsha approached Pippala and asked, “Who is the person that knows the sixteen arts and what are these arts?”
- Then Pippala said, “The person you are searching is within you”.
- Jēvāthma during the creation thought “what is the thing that will make me stay inside the body? And what is the thing which will make me come out of the body?”
- “Paramāthma created Prānnam, Shraddha, Ākāsham, Vāyu, Agni, Jalam, Prithvi, Indriyās, Manassu, Annam, Vēryam, Thappassu, Mantrās, Karmas, people and names”.[These are the sixteen and are possessed by God].
- “Just like rivers end up in the oceans and lose their identity, similarly when Jēvāthma loses these sixteen will mingle with Paramāthma”.
- “Just like spokes get support from the center of the wheel, similarly on knowing the artist with the sixteen arts one will get salvation. You all must know that Paramāthma and get salvation”.
- Then Pippala further said, “I know this much only about the Paramāthma and there is nothing minute than Paramāthma”.
- Then all the students praised Pippala and said, “You are our pathfinder and director. We salute you with our deepest heart”. Namaskāra to Pippala and Namaskāra to Pippala.