Venkata R Chaganti


1.   Age of Earth
2.   Yagna and its benefits 
  (a) Sroutha Yagyas and Smartha Yagyas
  (b) Materials required for construction of Yagya Vedi             
3.   Sound is the property of Vacuum (Ākasam) 
4.   Vēdas and Hinduism 
5.   Solar Energy
6.   Atmospheric elements
7.   Mathematics
8.   Electricity
9.   Stars and planets
10.  Creation
11.  Time and Direction                                   
12.  Agni
13.  Vāyu
14.  Jal
15.  Prithvi
16.  Mind
17.   Prānnāyāma
    (a) Prānnāyāma pdf 
18.   Sankranthi
19.   Ratha Sapthami


The earth is close to the sun on the winter solstice. Around this time we celebrate Pongal/Bhoogi every year. Earth’s axis is tilted about 23.5 degrees off center. Therefore during this time the southern hemisphere of the earth receives maximum of Sun’s light. On Pongal day Sun rays are almost perpendicular to the Tropic of Capricorn which is in the southern hemisphere. India is in Northern hemisphere so during this time we receive less Sun rays and therefore winter. Even though northern hemisphere is closer to Sun we do not receive much heat because of the tilt in the Earth’s axis. About September 21st the Sun rays will be perpendicular to the equator and by December 21st Sun rays fall perpendicular (over head) to the Tropic of Capricorn (which is a parallel of latitude on the Earth, 23.5 degrees south of the equator) and about January 15th the motion of Earth causes start of the perpendicularity of Sun rays shifting towards the Northern Hemisphere. About 21st of March the Sun rays fall perpendicular to the equator once more and this is called Vernal Equinox and is the spring time for Northern Hemisphere countries. During this time Earth is opposite in position to September 21st situation (which is called Autumnal Equinox).  About June 21st the Sun rays fall perpendicular to the Tropic of Cancer which is about 23.5 degrees north of the equator. Therefore at this time the Northern Hemisphere people experience maximum summer.

The essence of the above explanation is that exactly on Sankranthi day the Sun starts its travel from the Tropic of Cancer towards Northern Hemisphere. We Vedic people call it as the start of Utharāyanna. During Utharāyanna the days in Northern Hemisphere will be brighter than Dakshināyanna (From June ending or so). Therefore Makara (Capricorn) Sankranthi is celebrated on this day (about January 15th or so) as the start of Utharāyanna. During the months of November and December farmers collect all their harvest and sell them in the market and are in full swing for celebrations. Therefore the start of Utharāyanna was considered to be the best time for celebration throughout Indian subcontinent. Since our culture is same throughout Indian subcontinent we all celebrate around the same days even though the method slightly varies from place to place. As a mark of start of days of heat we put fire on that day and play or dance or pray by going around the fire.


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