- Ghandarva Vidya
- Artha Vēda or Shilpa Vidya
- Negantu/ Neruktam
- Pūrva Memāmsa
- Maha Bharatha
Visheshika Darsana is written by Maharshi Kanva. In this Darsana there are ten Chapters and in each Chapter there are two Sections. Put together in all Chapters there are 370 theorems. The knowledge of materials is the prime importance of this Darsana. According to this Darsana, everything in this Universe comes under six categories. These are (a) Objects, (b) Properties, (c) Actions, (d) Equality, (e) Specialty, and (f) Permanent Relation.
In the First Chapter Naming the materials and explaining them is given. In the Second and Third Chapters 9 types of Objects defined and explained. In the Fourth Chapter fundamental particles and temporary objects are described. In the Fifth Chapter Action theory is proposed. In the Sixth Chapter Vēdas as evidences and Dharma and Adharmas are explained. In the Seventh and Eight Chapters explanation of some Properties is given. In the Ninth Chapter, knowledge and imaginary thoughts are explained. In the last Chapter, excellent description about pleasure, displeasure and reason is given.
According to Maharshi Kanva Objects are 9 and they are respectively (i) Prithvi (solid matter), (ii) Āpah (Liquids especially water), (iii) Thejah (Fire which includes electricity, EM radiation and solar energy), (iv) Vāyu (Gas), (v) Ākasam (Vacuum), (vi) Dikk (Direction), (vii) Kāl (Time), (viii) Mannassu (Mind), and (xi) Ātma (Soul).
According to Maharshi Kanva there are 24 Properties and are respectively (1) Rōpam (Visibility), (2) Ras (Taste), (3) Gandha (Smell), (4) Sparsha (Touch), (5) Shabda (Sound), (6) Sankhya (Number), (7) Parimanna (Size), (8) Pruthaktvam (Destruction or Disappearing), (9) Sumyoga (Combining), (10) Vibhaga (Separation), (11) Parathva (Far), (12) Aparathva (Near), (13) Budhi (Knowledge), (14) Sukha (Pleasure or Happiness), (15) Dukha (Displeasure or pain), (16) Iccha (Liking), (17) Dvesha (Hating), (18) Prayatna (Attempting), (19) Gurutva (Gravity), (20) Dravatva (flowing), (21) Sneham (Viscosity), (22) Samskara (Elasticity, velocity), (23) Dharma, and (24) Adharma.
According to Maharshi Kanva the Actions are respectively (1) Uthkhespanam (movement required to send a body up), (2) Apakhespanam (movement required to send a body down), (3) Ākunchanam (Contraction), (4) Prasāranam (Expansion), and (5) Gamanam (Motion).
According to Visheshika Darsana, each Object has different (permanent relation) properties as given below.
(1) Prithvi: (i) Visibility, (ii) Taste, (iii) Smell, and (iv) Touch.
(2) Āpah: (i) Visibility, (ii) Taste, (iii) Touch, (iv) Flow, and (v) Viscosity.
(3) Thejah: (i) Visibility, and (ii) Touch.
(4) Vāyu: (i) Touch.
(5) Ākasam: (i) Sound.
(6) Number, Size, Destruction, Combining, Separation, Far, Near, Viscosity, flow, speed and Action are present in all Objects which have the Visibility property and are accessed via eyes and skin.
(7) Number, Size, Destruction, Combining, Separation, Far, Near, Viscosity, flow, speed and Action are present in all Objects which do not have the Visibility property but cannot be accessed via eyes and skin.
- Maharshi Kanva, on the request of his pupils, wants to describe Dharma with its characteristics and proof so as to explain them about Mōksham (Salvation).
- By which the knowledge of everything in the universe is obtained and in turn by which Mōksham is obtained is called Dharma. This is the character of Dharma.
- The proof of Dharma is that it is described in Vēdas.
- By acquiring the knowledge of the six things viz., a) Materials, b) Properties, c) Karmas d) Commonness, e) Specialty and f) Inseparability and also by following the instructions given in Vēdas, one can obtain Mōksham.
- Prithvi (Solid/Earth), Jal (Water), Thejah or Agni (Fire/Electricity/Heat), Vāyu (Air/Gases), Ākāsam (Vacuum), Kāl (Time), Dikk (Direction), Āthma and Mind are the nine Materials.
- Rūp (Shape and Color), Ras (Taste), Gandha (Smell), Sparsha (Touch), Shabdam (Sound), Sankhya (Number), Parimānam (Size), Pruthaktvam (being apart), Somyōga (Attachment), Vibhaga (Detachment), Parathva (Farness), Aparathva (Nearness), Budhi (Memory), Sukha (Comfort/pleasure/happiness), Dukha (Pain), Iccha (Desire), Dvesha (hatred), Prayathna (Willpower/Effort), Guruthva (Gravity), Dravathva (Flow/Liquidity), Sneham (Sticky nature/Surface Tension), Somskaram (Elasticity/Momentum), Dharma, and Adharma are the 24 Properties.
- The following are Karmas. Uthkshepanam (Projecting Up), Apakshepanam (Projecting down), Ākunchanam (Contraction), Prasāranam (Spreading) and Gamanam (Motion) are the five Karmas.
- The following are the equal Dharmas of Materials (Except Āthma) and Properties. Sath (Existence), Anithya (Not Permanent), Materials as inseparable reason, production, being reason for the products, having commonness with their own group and specialties from others.
- Producing their own group is the equal Dharma of Materials and Properties.
- Prithvi, Jal and Agni can produce their respective Materials. Similarly all Properties (Except Duality, Apartness, Farness and Nearness) can produce their respective Properties. Means Rūp can produce another Rūp, Sound can produce another Sound and so on.
- Karma cannot start or produce Karma.
- Result Material does not destroy Result Material. Reason Material does not destroy Reason Material.
- Result Property destroys the Reason Property and the Reason Property destroys the Result Property.
- Karma is the enemy of Result. Meaning, Karma first produces Separation (Separation is a property) from the old region and then produces Attachment (Attachment is a property) with the new region. After producing attachment, Karma is destroyed.
- Doing Karma or having Properties or having inseparable Materialistic nature is/are the characteristic(s) of a Material.
- Residing in a Material and not having a property and not being able to independently produce Separation or Attachment are regarded as the characteristics of a Property.
- Having Material as the Abode and not containing Property in it and being a reason to independently produce Separation and Attachment, are the characteristics of Karma.
- Material is the only inseparable reason for all the three things viz., Materials, Properties and Karmas.
- Similarly Property is also reason for all the three things viz., Materials, Properties and Karmas.
- Karma is the equal reason for producing Detachment, Attachment and Momentum.
- Karma is not the reason for production of Materials.
- Because at the time of production of a Material, Karma is absent. Karma produces Detachment of the material with the previous region, then produces Attachment with the new region and gets destroyed. After attachment with the new region, a new material is produced.
- Materials are made from Materials and not from anything else. Therefore Materialistic nature of Materials is an equal Dharma of Materials.
- Properties produce properties of their own nature, but Karmas cannot produce Karmas.
- Numbers from duality to infinity, Detachment, Attachment and being Apart are the properties which are present inseparably in all the resulting Materials.
- But Karma is not present like the above properties in the resulting Materials.
- Production of Material is the result of Attachment.
- Rūp present in the Materials after Attachment is the result of Rūp present in the Materials before Attachment.
- For the three Properties viz., Gravity, Effort and Attachment Uthkshepanam (Karma) is the result. Similarly Apakshepanam is the result of the three Properties mentioned above.
- Detachment, Attachment and Momentum are the results of Karma.
- Materials and Karmas are not the results of Karmas.
- Result or Effect will be absent if the Reason is absent.
- But Reason need not be absent if the Effect or Result is absent. Always Reason is boundless and Result is limited.
- Commonness and Specialties are acquired by Buddhi.
- Existence is Commonness present in Matter, Property and Karma.
- Nature of Matter, Nature of Property and Nature of Karma etc., being Commonness in respective things are Specialties when seen from each other.
- These Commonness and Specialties are more applicable in the Nature of Matter etc., than in the resulting Matters.
- Something that gives Buddhi the knowledge that there is Matter, there is Property and there is Karma is called ‘Existence’.
- This ‘Existence’ is a thing which is different from Matter, Property and Karma and is the Commonness in all these three.
- This ‘Existence’ is neither Matter nor Property nor Karma. Since neither Property nor Karma can have any of these in them, ‘Existence’ is a different thing than the Matter, Property and Karma.
- In the so called ‘Existence’, there is nothing like nature of Matter or nature of Property or nature of Karma. Therefore ‘Existence’ is a different thing than these three.
- Materialistic nature or Materialism of Matter is present in every Matter with inseparable relation. Therefore it is different from Matter, Property and Karma. The Commonness and Specialty is described just like Existence.
- Like Existence, Materialism is also different from Matter, Property and Karma.
- Nature of Property is present in Properties with inseparable relation.
- Also nature of Property is different from Matter, Property and Karma.
- Nature of Karma is present in Karma with inseparable relation.
- Also nature of Karma is different from Matter, Property and Karma.
- Existence is the Commonness present in the Matter, Property and Karma with inseparable relation.
- Prithvi is one of the Nine Materials described earlier and it has Rūp, Ras, Gandha, and Sparsha as its Properties with inseparable relation with them.
- Natural liquidity, Sneham, Rūp, Ras and Sparsha are the Properties which are in inseparable relation with Jal.
- Rūp and Sparsha are the Properties which are in inseparable relation with Agni.
- Sparsha is the Property which is in inseparable relation with Vāyu.
- Rūp, Ras, Gandha, and Sparsha, not having inseparable relation with Ākāsham is the character of Ākāsham.
- Liquidity in Materials like butter, lak, and wax is due to addition of Agni with them and is an equal Dharma with Jal.
- Liquidity in Materials like Copper, Iron, Silver and Gold is due to addition of excess Agni with them and is an equal Dharma with Jal.
- A cow can be distinguished from other animals by its Special hanging skin below its neck. Similarly every Material described above should be separated from all others by its Special Properties.
- Vāyu is a Material which has a Special touch Property, which is neither hot nor cold. So any material which is naturally neither hot nor cold is Vāyu.
- Prithvi, Jal and Agni do have the Property touch, but this touch is either hot or cold. Therefore the Material that is experienced by every living being with a touch Property and which is neither hot nor cold is described as Vāyu.
- Since touch is a Property, and Properties reside only in Materials, Vāyu is a Material.
- Since Karma and Property are present in Vāyu, it is regarded as Material.
- Vāyu is considered eternal because it is not evolved from any other Material.
- There are different kinds of Vāyu present in the Universe.
- Since Vāyu is not visible but the skin is visible, can Vāyu be accessed by skin?
- Since Touch is a Property and everyone experiences this touch in the absence of other Materials, there got to be a Material which is invisible and that is called Vāyu.
- The Material which is the abode of the Property touch is called Vāyu and it got its name from Vēdas.
- Names and duties are given in Vēdas and since Vēdas are full of Truth, these are given by God.
- Both Name and Duty are present only in accessible Materials. For whom past, present and future, Farness and Nearness are accessible, only that person can Name and assign Duties to Materials. And such a person is God. God gave Vēdas. Therefore Vēdas are taken as the ultimate proof.
- The entry and exit of a Material from point to point gives the image of a Material called Ākāsham.
- Since the entry and exit are present in the Material with inseparable relation, how can this process give the idea to a different Material called Ākāsham?
- Since there are no inseparable and separable reason characteristics in Ākāsham, is it possible to ascertain the entry and exit Karmas in Ākāsham?
- Karma is possible only when there is Detachment, Attachment and Momentum. So the Material that is exiting or entering should be Attached and Detached from something. That something is called Ākāsham. This Karma, Attachment and Detachment are in inseparable relation with Ākāsham.
- Properties that are in Reason also appear in Result or in Effect. Properties that are in Result should have been in the Reason also. Properties that are totally different from Reason cannot come in Result. Therefore seeing the Properties in Result, we can imagine the Properties in Reason.
- Sound is not the Property of any of the touchable Materials Prithvi, Jal, Agni and Vāyu. For example the Property Smell is present in Prithvi as long as that Material is present. Whereas Sound once produced does not exist in that Material after a short time. If it is the Property of that Material, Sound should continuously be present in that Material just like other Properties being present. Therefore Sound is not the Property of any of the above said Materials.
- Since Sound is accessed by Ears, it cannot be the Property of any of the other Materials such as Āthma, Mind, Time and Direction.
- Since Sound is a Property and it should take asylum in some Material and none of the eight Materials have Sound as their Property, the only remaining Material Ākāsham should possess this Property.
- Since Sound is a Property and it is present in Ākāsham, it can be concluded that Ākāsham is a Material. Also Ākāsham is eternal because it does not evolve from any Material.
- Singularity is assigned to Ākāsham from the thing ‘Existence’.
- Ākāsham is a single entity because we cannot find difference in the structure of Sound and there is no reason by which we can find the difference.
- In Ākāsham, we can find the Property ‘Being Apart’.
- When a flower and a cloth piece are rubbed to each other, the Smell of the flower is attached to the cloth piece, even though the threads of the cloth piece do not originally have the Smell of the flower. Similarly if Smell is found in Vāyu and Jal, then it should be due to the Presence of particles of Prithvi in Vāyu and Jal.
- Good and bad Smells are naturally present in the Prithvi.
- Similarly if Vāyu, Jal and Prithvi are found cold or hot, it should be understood that it is due to the presence of Agni in them.
- That is to say that Hotness is the Character of Agni.
- Coldness is the natural Character of Jal.
- The knowledge acquired from the statements, “This person is elder than that person”, “He has come just now”, “He is coming quickly”, are the reason for existence of a Material called Time.
- The eternity and Materialism of Time can be proved just as Vāyu is proved for its eternity and Materialism.
- The singularity of Time is explained from the thing ‘Existence’.
- For every Material that is not eternal, Time is the General Reason and its name Kal is obtained from Vēdas.
- The knowledge acquired from the statements, “This place is far than that place”, “This thing is nearer than that thing”, are the reason for existence of a Material called Direction.
- The eternity and Materialism of Direction can be proved just as Vāyu is proved for its eternity and Materialism.
- The singularity of Direction is explained from the thing ‘Existence’.
- The Direction is differentiated as East, West, North, South etc., because of the Sun.
- The Direction in which dawn occurs or is occurring now is called as East at that place.
- Similarly one should know about the Directions West, North and South.
- Similarly one should know about the Directions North-East, South-East etcetera.
- Because of Commonness and Specialties, one gets doubt on observing a less illuminated object as to whether it is a person or a rock.
- The Characteristic of a doubt is that, the one who gets the doubt should have the experience of the two objects in the past and should know the Commonness and Specialties of the two objects.
- If a person Ram is seen in the past with a lot of hair and beard, and after some days when the same person is seen with completely shaven head and beard, then one gets a doubt as to whether the person seen now is Ram or not.
- When a doubt arises due to true knowledge and illusion, then it is referred to as internal doubt.
- The thing which is acquired by the sense Ear is called as Sound.
- There can be doubt about Sound, whether it is a Material or Property or Karma?
- Sound is not a Material, because every Material should be in inseparable relation with More than one Material. Whereas Sound is in inseparable relation with only Ākāsham. Therefore Sound cannot be a Material.
- Sound is not Karma, because it cannot be accessed by the Eye.
- Therefore Sound is a Property and has equal Dharma with Karma in getting destroyed after production.
- Is there a reason to say that Sound is eternal?
- Since Sound is produced and destroyed, can it be believed that it is eternal?
- Since Sound has Reason, can it be believed that it is eternal?
- Sound is the result of two objects colliding or making a body vibrate, therefore it has Reason. This fact cannot be ignored or bypassed and hence can Sound be eternal?
- Should we say Sound is evolved or produced?
- We get Sound due to Attachment and Detachment of two bodies or breaking of objects.
- Since we are claiming Sound is produced, can we say Sound is eternal?
- If a Sound is produced by a person ‘X’, and if the same Sound is repeated by ‘Y’, then we can say that Sound did not destroy. If Sound did not destroy, then how can we say Sound is not eternal?
- If the same Sound is produced repeatedly, then how come Sound is destroyed?
- Since different people are reading the same book at different times, Sound is not destroyed and hence Sound is eternal.
- Because Sound is not eternal, the numbers of Syllables are limited.
- Senses and what can be accessed through them are known to everyone, i.e., these require no introduction.
- The importance and celebrity of these Senses and their objects are the reason to access the invisible thing.
- Where do these Senses send the data to? If we say it is the Body, then it is accounted as invalid reason. Why?
- Because body does not have knowledge. Why? Because the tiny particles of the body does not possess knowledge.
- If we say the parts of the body has knowledge, then we have to agree that everything in the world has knowledge.
- If we say knowledge is present in every object, then we should be able to see it. Since we cannot see knowledge in every object, we reject that body is knowledge full.
- Reason and Result are different. They cannot be same.
- The one which is all the way different from the other cannot be the reason for that. For example we see different types of particles in the smoke. When we see these particles elsewhere, we cannot ascertain fire at that place or rather we cannot say fire is the reason for these particles.
- Binders, inseparable, object containing inseparables, oppose etc., are the Reasons.
- Where ever we find the property Rūp we find the property Touch. That is Touch is the reason for Rūp. That is the property Touch is in excess than Rūp. For example Vāyu, Agni, Jal and Prithvi have the Property Touch, and except Vāyu all the other three Materials have the Property Rūp. Therefore always Reason is in excess to the Result.
- Not having the Result is due to the presence of some Reason. For example even though there is a cloud formation, but no rain, indicates that there is some special gas which is in contact with the clouds that does allow the clouds to rain. This type of Reason is called oppose.
- If there is rain, then we can conclude that there is no interaction between the clouds and such gas as described above. This is an indication of the Oppose Reason for the absence of such a gas.
- Similarly when we see a snake hissing near a bush, we should understand the presence of some animal in the bush. So hissing of the snake is the Oppose Reason for the absence of some animal.
- Finally, when we have to find the Reason for the Result, we have to see that thing, which is in interlinked relation with the Result and also always present in excess to the Result.
- The Reason that is not present in the context but is present elsewhere is an ill Reason.
- For example, “This is horse because it has horns”. In this statement the Reason is horns. We know that horses do not have horns but cows can have. Therefore this Reasoning is ill Reasoning.
- Similarly, “This is a cow because it has horns”, is an insufficient Reason. Because, even some other animals also have horns. Therefore this Reason cannot be a sufficient Reason.
- The thing that acquires knowledge from the senses is called Āthma. The knowledge that we acquire from the senses is not the Āthma. Even though we agree that Āthma is of knowledgeable form, the knowledge acquired from the senses is not Āthma. Therefore the thing that acquires this knowledge should be a Material and the name of such a Material is Āthma.
- As a person realizes that the efforts put by him/her are similar to the efforts put by others, we can say there are many Āthmas in the Universe.
- The knowledge we acquire from the senses is not simultaneous. Instead it is one after one. This indicates that between Āthma and Senses there should be a Material and that is called as Mind.
- The Materialism and eternity for Mind should be obtained just as obtained for Vāyu.
- At one time we can do only one activity, such as hearing, seeing, tasting etc., and do only one thing. Therefore in everybody only one Mind is present.
- Breathing, opening and closing the eye lids, developments in the body, getting sensual, pleasure, pain, hate, love, effort etcetera are the indications that there is Āthma in the body.
- The Materialism and eternity of Āthma should be obtained just as obtained for Vāyu.
- Since Āthma is not visible, how can we ascertain its existence?
- We get to know about Āthma with the help of knowledge but to by vision.
- We get its name from Vēdas.
- In Āthma the feel ‘Me’ is embedded. Therefore Āthma is different from all the Materials discussed so far. Therefore we take the word from Vēdas.
- When there is a direct evidence with statements like “I am Devadatta”, “I am Yagnadatta”, in which the word “I” indicating Āthma, why do we have to know it by indirect means?
- With the words “I”, we will get to know there is something, but Āthma and Mind do not appear directly just as an apple is visible and we can know it directly. Therefore indirect means is necessary.
- The words, “Devadutta is going”,”Yagnadutta is going”, are applicable to bodies but not to Āthma present in the bodies.
- The words “I”, “Me” are occurring within a person and not elsewhere for that person. If these words refer to a body, then they should refer to everybody not just one. Therefore when a person says “I”, it means everybody. Since it is not the case does not the word “I” make Āthma present directly?
- Thinking that the words “I” and “Me” are Āthma is egotism. In essence these refer to bodies but not to Āthma.
- Is egotism a property of body?
- When we say I am running, I am walking etcetera, we mean the body is moving not the Āthma. Therefore egotism is a property of the body not Āthma.
- Therefore just like Ākāsham, Āthma is also proved indirectly. Therefore Āthma is not only obtained from Vēdas but also from indirect means.
- Since pain, pleasure etc., are felt by everyone, should not there be a single Āthma?
- When a person X gets pain or pleasure, does Y get the same pain or pleasure simultaneously? The answer is NO. We all know that everyone’s pain and pleasure are different from one another. Therefore there are more than one Āthma.
- Also from Vēdas, we understand that there are many Āthmas.
- The one which has Existence, which has no Reason and which changes (Takes different forms) regularly is called Prakrithi.
- The Existence and eternity of Prakrithi is proved by the presence of today’s Universe.
- For every Result there should be a Reason. Therefore for today’s Universe there should be a Reason. And whatever that is, it is called as Prakrithi.
- Some people say that there is no Material which is eternal. The answer for this is that, if there is no Material which is eternal, then there can be no Material which is temporary!
- Ignorance is the Reason for not considering some Materials as eternal.
- Visible Materials have many Materials in inseparable relation. Therefore these are visible. In Prakrithi, many Materials are not in inseparable relation. Thus, it is not visible.
- Even though Vāyu has many Materials present in them, it does not have the property of visibility. Therefore it is not visible.
- Until the property visibility is present in a body, one cannot see the body. Having many Materials and the property Visibility in inseparable relation with the Material is the reason for visibility.
- Similarly we have to understand about other properties such as Taste, Touch, Smell and Sound.
- There is no special Smell present in the stones. That is the reason for the stones not giving out smell.
- Number, Being Apart, Attachment, Detachment, Farness, Nearness, Stickiness, Velocity, Liquidity and Karma are present in inseparable relation with every visible Material and Touchable Material.
- All the above mentioned Properties and Karma are in inseparable relation with invisible Materials also, but there are not Visible and Touchable.
- Properties, Existence are the objects of Senses.
- Every Material (Other than Time, Direction, Vacuum) that has evolved from Prakrithi is divided into three categories viz., Body, Sense and Object. Time and Direction are only of one category i.e., objective, Ākāsham is of two types viz., Sense and Objective. Human and animal bodies are the Body of Prithvi, Nose is the Sense of Prithvi and Remaining Prithvi is the Object. Similarly Jal is of three types viz., bodies of aquatic animals is the Body of Jal, Taste is the Sense of Jal, and rivers, oceans, lakes etc., are the Object of Jal. The bodies of hot region living beings is the Body of Agni, Eye are the Sense of Agni and Fire, Electricity, Fire in the Sun, Acid in the stomach etc., are the Object of Agni. The bodies of Air region living beings is the Body of Vāyu, Skin is the Sense of Vāyu and the air that surrounds the planets, the air that we breathe etc., are the Object of Vāyu. Ear is the Sense of Ākāsham and remaining Ākāsham is the Object.
- Each of these i.e., Body, Sense and Object are not having the Five Materials (Prithvi, Jal, Agni, Vāyu and Ākāsham) in them with inseparable relation. Because if invisible Materials like Vāyu and Ākāsham are in inseparable relation with other materials, then these other materials also have to be invisible. Therefore, the Five Materials are not present with inseparable relation with them.
- Also the Properties that are different from the Reason are not present in these materials. Therefore, these are not having these Five Materials with inseparable relation.
- Not even Three Materials (Agni, Jal and Prithvi) are in inseparable relation with these materials.
- Even though these materials are not having the Five Materials mentioned above in inseparable relation, attachment of these Materials is not ruled out. Therefore the bodies of humans and other living beings we find all the Five Materials present but not with inseparable relation. Other than the main Material, the remaining Materials are present as a strength giving things in the referred material. For example human body is mainly made of Prithvi. But the presence of others like Agni, Jal and Vāyu is only to give strength to the body and these are not in inseparable relation with each other.
- The bodies of living beings are of two types viz., vaginal and non vaginal. Vaginal bodies are humans, animals, birds (through eggs) etc., and non Vaginal are of four types viz., God’s initial creation of living beings, bodies of Yogis, bacterial bodies and plants.
- The bodies at the beginning of the creation are made by God. Since we do not find any other reason by which we can claim that these bodies are born by, we conclude that these are made by God.
- If we consider that the bodies of early creation are made just like any other object in the world, then these bodies cannot be different from Prithvi, Agni, Jal etc., and have no knowledge in them. Therefore these bodies are made by God and depending on Dharma these are made as humans, animals and other creatures.
- There were several different humans at the beginning of the creation.
- The names of the first humans have been given from the Vēdas, because there was no one to give the names other than God.
- Therefore the first humans were born Non Vaginal.
- The proof of this is given in Vēdas.
- With the help of Mind and Effort, Āthma or a person produces Karma in his body.
- Similarly a person produces Karma in other bodies with the help of his hands, legs etc., and Gravity.
- When a stick is hit to the earth it jumps back. The Karma generated (jumping up) in the stick is not due to the Attachment of the human hand. Because without the Attachment of the human hand the stick still jumps back when thrown down.
- If the hand is still in contact with the stick, then even the hand jumps back. This jump is not due to the effort of Āthma or the person.
- This jumping Karma is generated due to the Momentum of impact.
- The movement of the hand along with the stick is due to the Attachment of the hand with the stick.
- The stick after rising to some extent comes back due to Gravity.
- Without Momentum in a particular direction, there cannot be motion in that direction.
- Momentum is produced due to human and/or machine efforts.
- Due to Momentum and Gravity particles/bodies move far, up, down etc.,
- Just like the Karma generated in the hand of a person, Karma is generated in the playing kids.
- Due to Attachment of Agni and Vāyu, explosion occurs and Karma is generated in the materials. This Karma is equal to the Karma generated in the playing kids.
- The movement sometimes in the dead bodies is due to the Vāyu movement in the body.
- Flying of objects is due to Vāyu movement and its attachment with the objects.
- The motion in the compass needle is due to invisible forces.
- When an arrow is left from a bow, it undergoes different Karmas before it strikes the object. These different Karmas are generated due to attachments and detachments of the arrow with the space at different timings and also due to different reasons.
- Initially due to Elastic Force (Karma) Momentum is generated. After that due to momentum Karma is generated. This sequence continues. (If this sequence continues why does the arrow fall down?)
- The arrow falls down due to dissipation of energy and due to Gravity.
- Due to compression and collision of different objects in the earth and mountains, Earth Quakes occur.
- The motion of Earth around the Sun is due to invisible reasons and energy.
- Water in the Cloud gets Karma from the Attachment of special Vāyu and due to Gravity pours down onto the Earth.
- This rain water moves from one place to the other due to liquidity.
- Water from rivers and oceans rises to clouds due to attachment with sunrays and Vāyu.
- Due to Sunrays, Vāyu is heated and applies Force on the Water molecules and gets attached to them. Later Vāyu raises these Water molecules to the Clouds.
- Similarly the Water molecules move up along the stems in a tree due to invisible energy in the trees.
- Water in the clouds gets attached and detached with the Electricity in that region and falls down to earth.
- The proof of Electricity near the clouds is the lightning and thunder.
- The proof of this is given in Vēdas.
- Thunder is due to attachment and detachment of Water with the Electricity.
- The Karmas produced in Vāyu and Agni can be understood in a similar fashion with the Karmas produced in the Earth.
- The Karmas that produce the burning of flame in upward direction, making the air to flow in the horizontal direction ant the motion of mind and subatomic particles is due to invisible forces.
- The Karma produced in the Mind is due to the attachment of effort and Āthma.
- The reason for pleasure and pain of Mind is due to the knowledge gained by Āthma from the attachment of things through the Senses and Mind.
- With exercising restrain, Mind can be controlled and kept within the Āthma control. In such case there is no knowledge gained from the surroundings. Therefore pain and pleasure disappear from the Mind. This sate is called YOGA.
- After death the Soul and Mind together leave the body and enter into a new body. These are invisible Karmas.
- Due to Sastras ignorance is eliminated. When ignorance is eliminated the three types of pains are removed. This state is called Mōksham or salvation.
- The absence of light is Darkness. This Darkness is neither a Material, nor Property nor Karma. It is just absence of light. Therefore there is no necessary of testing its Karma.
- The obstruction of light is called darkness. Therefore there is no necessary of testing its Karma.
- Direction, Time and Vacuum are motionless. Therefore there is no Karma in them.
- Similarly Properties and Karmas are motionless. Therefore there is no Karma in them.
- The attachment of Properties and Karmas with Materials is an inseparable relation. Therefore there is no attachment taking place and hence there is no Karma in the Properties and Karmas.
- In producing Karma, Properties are indirect reason and not the inseparable reason.
- Similarly Direction is not a direct reason for Karma.
- Time is an instrumental reason and not an inseparable reason for production of Karma.
- Vēdas are full of knowledge and contain Truth.
- At the beginning of creation, the names and signs of different objects were given by Vēdas.
- In Vēdas there are several Mantras which indicate that the knowledge of the author is limitless. Therefore Vēdas are given by God.
- In the Vēdas there are several Mantras which describe the Karma processes. These require complete knowledge of past, present and future. Therefore Vēdas could have been given only by God.
- The result of Karmas is given to the Āthma which does those Karmas and not to the Āthma which does not do these Karmas.
- The good results described by Vēdas are given to that person who eats food prescribed by Vēdas and not to the person who defies Vēdas.
- Food prescribed by Vēdas is without violence. That is food should not be acquired by not killing animals (including fish, insects and eggs).
- The person who eats non-vegetarian food is restricted from the good results.
- But by leaving the non-vegetarian food the person will get the good results.
- On leaving the non-vegetarian food, one should adopt vegetarian food and do the Karmas described by Vēdas.
- One should either eat Sāthvic or Rājasic food but not the Tāmasic food.
- Donations should be taken from Best or better or good people but not from worst people.
- Similarly we should leave Karmas which are not according to Vēdas.
- In the case of war if the enemy is not a Dharma following person and is weaker than you, kill him.
- If the enemy is of equal to you, fight until one dies.
- If the enemy is stronger than you fight till death for the sake of Dharma.
- In some cases results are visible for the Karmas and in some cases the results are not visible. Still one should do the Karmas prescribed by Vēdas. The results are inevitable for every Karma we do and not to be worried about them.
- Clean water bath, removing mind from sins, Brahmacharya, learning from scholars, in old age joining the elite group, performing Yagna, donating for a good cause, Cleaning the environment, praying God at all times and in all directions with the help of Mantras, Keeping inner cleanliness, being happy at all times, doing penance and scholarly discussions are some of the Vēdic prescriptions for doing Karmas.
- In performing the above said Karmas and the Karmas that are to be described latter, one need not depend on others for results.
- Karmas performed by ignorance are called Upadha and done with Vēdic knowledge are called Aupadha.
- The food prescribed by Vēdas should be cleansed by pure water before consuming.
- The food not prescribed by Vēdas and not cleansed by pure water is not useful for consumption.
- Food that is not got by proper earnings is not useful for consumption. That is the food should be obtained lawfully.
- Non-vegetarians do not get the good results in spite of their clean eating food habits.
- Persons who are in war for the sake of Dharma can eat food even if it is not cleaned.
- If one does not follow the Karmas prescribed in Vēdas, best food cannot be obtained.
- By enjoying pleasures a person yields for them. Similarly by suffering pains a person shows indifference to them.
- By experiencing pleasures and pains several times one acquires either devotion or dislike for them.
- Similarly due to the past birth one acquires devotion or dislike for some of the things in this birth.
- Due to type of birth one acquires devotion in some things and dislike in other things. For example Lions are interested in deer and deer is interest in grass etc.,
- Likes and dislikes are instrumental in doing Karmas to acquire pleasures or pains.
- Because of this one has to take birth several times.
- By following Vēdic prescriptions one can avoid births and deaths and obtain Mōksham.
- In this section we will test the earlier mentioned Properties.
- Properties like Rūp, Ras, Gandha, Sparsha, Parimānam, Pruthaktvam, Number, acquired Liquidity, Gravity and Stickiness are not eternal because the Materials in which they reside are not eternal.
- Similarly those Properties are eternal which reside in eternal Materials.
- The Properties in the Materials Jal, Agni and Vāyu are eternal, since these Materials are eternal.
- Non eternal Materials or objects will have non-eternal Properties.
- The properties in the resulting object is due to the properties present in the objects that are reason for the product.
- The properties in the reason are present in the result with self inseparable relation.
- The reason for the visibility of an object is its size.
- Because of the Properties many and size being in the object with inseparable relation an object is visible.
- When two subatomic particles combine then the size in them is due to the number and not due to the size of the individual particles.
- In visible objects bigness is the specialty and minuteness is absent.
- Even though bigness and minuteness are simultaneously present in the visible object, only bigness is important.
- Even though there are stars present in the space, due to Sun these are not visible. The reason for this is bigness and minuteness.
- There is no smallness in the minuteness and there is no bigness in the largeness.
- There is no Karma in Karma and there is no Property in the Property.
- Similarly there is no bigness and smallness in the Property and Karma. Since smallness and bigness are Properties, these cannot be present in Property and Karma.
- Similarly we have to understand about tallness and shortness.
- Size is not eternal in non-eternal Materials.
- Size is eternal in eternal Materials.
- Since ‘Paramānu’, the smallest entity in the Universe is eternal; its size is also eternal.
- The proof of the size of Paramānu is to be understood by the fact that all the Materials are big or small relative to each other. Therefore when we say Paramānu is the smallest entity in the Universe, it should have some size.
- God and Vacuum or Ākāsham are all pervading and eternal.
- Soul is bigger than Paramānu but is the size of Anuvu (60 Paramānus make one Anuvu).
- Direction is all pervading and eternal.
- Similarly Time is also all pervading and eternal. That is why Time is instrumental in the production of everything in this Universe.
- Single entity (Number) is a Property different from other Properties like Rūp, Ras, Gandha etc.,
- Similarly Pruthaktvam (being apart) is also a different Property.
- There is no singleness in the single entity and there is no apartness in the Pruthaktvam.
- There is no Number in the Property and Karma.
- Due to illusion some say that “This is a single color”, “This is a single Karma”, etcetera.
- Single entity exists in Materials.
- Singleness and Pruthaktvam are present in both reason and result but not simultaneously.
- Singleness and Pruthaktvam are explained in reason just as non-eternal things are explained.
- Attachment occurs between two bodies and is of three types. First type of Attachment occurs between a moving body and a resting body. Second type occurs between two moving bodies. Third type is an indirect Attachment i.e. when the hand of a person touches a table, the body of the person and the table Attach.
- Similarly Detachment is of three types.
- This is just a reminder saying about Karma, Property, Smallness and Bigness.
- Karma and Properties have already been discussed.
- There is no Attachment and Detachment between reason and result. Because these cannot exist separately.
- There is no Attachment between Sound and its meaning, because Sound itself is a Property. Since a Property cannot have Attachment or Detachment, there cannot be Attachment between Sound and its meaning.
- Sometimes Sound also gives meaning of Property. Since there is no Attachment between two Properties, Sound and its meaning cannot have Attachment between them.
- Since Sound is a Property, Karma cannot exist in it. Therefore no Attachment can take place between Sound and its meaning.
- Sound and its meaning are Attachment free.
- Sound and its meaning do not occur at the same time. Therefore they cannot have any Attachment between them.
- If Sound and its meaning have a relation, then when a person says cake his mouth should be filled with cake. Since this does not happen we conclude that Sound and its meaning do not have attachment between them.
- The relation between Sound and its meaning is purely technical.
- Nearness and Farness are Directional oriented and Time oriented.
- Due to Nearness and Farness Reasons, we get Nearness and Farness in this world.
- There is no other Nearness and Farness in the Nearness and Farness.
- Karma and Properties were explained earlier.
- In a given object Rūp, Size and other Properties are experienced simultaneously. The relation of one thing with the other in this manner is called inseparable relation. For example a cloth piece is made with threads. Therefore threads and the cloth piece are in inseparable relation.
- There is no Materialism or Property in the inseparability.
- Inseparability is Unique and eternal.
- Direct accessibility of Materials has been already discussed. (Are there any Materials that are not directly accessible?)
- Āthma, Mind, Ākāsham, Vāyu, Kāl, Dikk and Prakrithi are not accessible directly. That is these cannot be accessed by Senses. (Then how do we access them?)
- In chapter-3 the method of acquiring the knowledge of these Materials has been explained.
- The reason for the knowledge we gain about the Properties and Karmas from our Senses is due to the Materials present in the Universe.
- The knowledge which agrees that there is Existence in the Property and Karma is important in analyzing commonness and specialty of Materials, Property and Karmas.
- In Materials, Property and Karma we get the knowledge about the Materialism, being property and being Karma and the commonness and specialties of these things.
- In acquiring knowledge about a Material, we may acquire Material or its Property or its Karma.
- But in acquiring knowledge about Property or Karma, we get only Property or Karma. Because in Property and Karma, there is no other thing present. Where as in Material we have all the three things present. That is in a Material we have Materialism, Property and Karma.
- When we see a white object we acquire a special knowledge about the object and extraordinary knowledge about the whiteness. These two i.e. the special knowledge and the extraordinary knowledge are reason and result for each other.
- Whereas in Materials these two types of knowledge cannot be everywhere in the order of reason and result. For example, “This is pot”, “This is hat”, in such statements pot and hat cannot have reason and result relation. Only when there is inseparable relation between Materials or objects we can have reason and result sequence.
- If two Materials have reason and result sequence, then the knowledge of these two should be acquired simultaneously but not separately.
- “He is a Teacher”, “he is a Scientist”, “and he has come after a long time. Give him good food”, such statements give direct knowledge of the subject.
- “He is”, “She is” are words used when the person is present or when the person is accessible. Therefore the knowledge acquired is direct one and not indirect.
- The word thing is used for Material, Property and Karma.
- In objects we find all the five materials viz., Ākāsham, Vāyu, Agni, Jal and Prithvi. Even though these are not in inseparable relation in the object, these are still instrumental in the strength of the object. If a Material is made of Jal, then in that material Jal will be in excess to others and does not mean others are not present. For example the bodies of aquatic animals are made of Jal. This does not rule out the presence of other four Materials in them.
- The Property that is accessed by a Sense has that Material as object or is made of that Material, which is in inseparable relation with that Property. For example, Prithvi is the object for the Sense Nose. Because Nose can access the Property smell and smell is in inseparable relation with Prithvi only, we conclude that the object of Nose is Prithvi. Similarly others have to be understood.
- Similarly for Eyes Agni, for Skin Vāyu and for Tongue Jal are the objects i.e. these Senses are made of these Materials respectively. (What about Ears? This was discussed earlier that Ākāsham has sense and object and no body. Whereas other four Materials have all the three i.e. body, sense and object. For example the body of Jal is the body of aquatic animal, its sense is Tongue and the remaining Jal is the object.)
- Before Creation these Materials (Except Āthma and Prakrithi) do not exist. Because there is no Karma and Property of these Materials before Creation.
- These were in their respective Reasons before Creation.
- The Result will depend on the Reason. Nothing is created out of its Reason.
- After Creation Result is obtained from its Reason and again after destruction turns into its Reason.
- Something cannot be made of nothing. For everything that is created there should be a Reason existing. Therefore from Existence (Reason) we get the Result and not from nothing.
- When an object is destroyed we get the direct knowledge (By comparing with the Memory) that it does not exist anymore.
- Because of the accessibility of the object after creation, we get the direct knowledge that the object did not exist before Creation.
- Similarly the absence of cow in the horse and Adharma in the non-Vēdic Karmas can be imagined.
- What is the Objective of the words, “There is no pot here”, and “There is no horse here” etcetera?
- The Objective of these words is that the place “here” has no relation to the objects mentioned. There are somewhere else but not here.
- When Yogi attaches (focuses on) his Mind with Āthma, he gets the direct knowledge of Āthma and God.
- Similarly Yogi gets the direct knowledge of minute objects by the above said process.
- The persons who can completely focus and those who cannot always focus, for both of them the direct knowledge of Āthma and God is obtained.
- The above said Yogi gets the direct knowledge of the Property and Karma of the minute objects.
- Similarly the Yogi gets the direct knowledge of pain and pleasure present in the Āthma.
- By doubt we get the relation between Reason and Result. For example by looking at the Smoke we can say about the Fire, by looking at amount of rain we can suspect the clouds and looking at the Property in a Materials we can suspect its inseparable relation with the Material etcetera.
- We can get knowledge from doubts only with examples and the prior knowledge gained.
- The knowledge acquired by the examples given by Āptha (Impartial Scholar) should be taken as direct knowledge.
- Reason (Hethuvu) has four other words that are used often in place of it. Apadesha, Lingam, Pramānam and Karannam.
- The strong relation between things gives the knowledge of Reason and Result.
- Because of past experience and the attachment of Āthma with mind gives the memory of the thing that we are seeking.
- Similarly we get dreams.
- The things we saw in the past dreams can be seen once again. These are nothing but memories.
- Because of Dharma and Adharma we get that type of dreams.
- Because of polluted Senses or polluted ideas we get ignorance.
- Ignorance is pain.
- Unpolluted knowledge is called Vidya.
- We acquire unpolluted knowledge or pure knowledge from Vēdas and Sastras.
- Pain and pleasure do not occur at the same time. Therefore these are different from each other.
- Knowledge is of two types i.e. Definite and Doubt. Pain and Pleasure cannot become the difference between these two types of knowledge. Therefore pain and pleasure are different.
- The production of pain and pleasure should be understood similar to acquiring knowledge by direct and indirect methods.
- Similarly the past memories of pain and pleasure can make a person experience pain and pleasure in the future.
- Even though we get the knowledge of pain and pleasure, these are different from the knowledge.
- In the Āthma along with pain and pleasure, Dharma and Adharma, Like and Dislike, Effort are present. Therefore the knowledge of pain and pleasure is different from pain and pleasure.
- The difference in the different parts of a single body is due to the difference in the Reasons by which these are produced.
- Inseparable Reason is present in the Material but not in Property and Karma. These three are in inseparable relation in the Material itself.
- Attachment (which is a Property) of different parts of an object is an indirect reason and not inseparable reason. Only the Material is the inseparable reason for the object.
- Karma is present in the Material which undergoes attachment, detachment and gains momentum. Therefore Karma is indirect reason and not inseparable reason. Only the Material is an inseparable reason.
- The Property present in the Reason is the indirect reason for the same Property present in the result.
- Because the Property Attachment is present in the inseparable Reason (Material) with inseparable relation, it is the indirect Reason for the Result.
- Attachment is the indirect Reason for the Size of the Result formed by the inseparable Reason.
- Hotness, which is with inseparable relation with Agni, is the instrumental Reason in binding and other properties of objects produced.
- Even though the Vēdic Karmas do not give immediate Results, one should not leave them. They are bound to give Results in future.
- In which we find Complete Knowledge, in that we obtain God.
- Because of this Reason, Vēdas are self vouching.
Aum Thath Sath
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