Ēsāvāsyōpanishad is the 40th Chapter (Adhyaya) of Yajur Vēda. So it is called the head of all Upanishads. The meaning of the mantras as given by Maharshi Dayananda Saraswathi is given below.
Meaning of First Mantra: We are observed by God all the time and by all means. Entire Universe is filled with Him and God pervades all. People, who know that God is omnipresent, do not illegally steal others money and such people become Dharma abiding and get benefitted from both the worlds and all ways experience a state of bliss. The two worlds are respectively the world in which we all are living and the world after death.
Meaning of Second Mantra: God advises all humans to do those Karmas which are recommended in the Vēdas and should desire to live for 100 years. If a person does like this then the Karmas will not be binding to the person and this is the only method to get salvation.
Meaning of Third Mantra: Humans who, with ignorance do not perform duties as mentioned above and perform Karmas against that mentioned above will, after death retake birth again as they were.
Meaning of Fourth Mantra: One and only One who is immobile but moves the Universe in a regular fashion and is faster than the mind (That means He is present everywhere at every time) and is present everywhere before everything is God. The five senses (Eyes, ears, nose, skin and tongue) cannot access Him. In Him we (Humans) all should dedicate our Karmas. That means all the five senses and mind cannot access Him. (Then what can access Him? This is what we all should think).
Meaning of Fifth Mantra: This Brahma appears to be moving for ignorant but is immobile for the scholars. It (Brahma) is present close by and also far. It is present inside of everything in the Universe. It is present outside of everything in the Universe.
Meaning of the Sixth Mantra: The Scholar who realizes either by education or by Dharma or by knowledge, that God is present inside and outside of every living or nonliving thing in the Universe will not have any more doubts.
Meaning of the Seventh Mantra: The Scholar who realizes and feels with his extraordinary knowledge or due to Dharma that every living being in this Universe is having exactly the same sorrow and pleasure as that of his own and who sees oneness in the God, cannot be touched by ignorance or sorrow.
Meaning of the Eight Mantra: The thing which is all pervading, which is infinitely fast, which is not having any type of form, which cannot be pierced, which does not have any neural bindings, which does not have even an atom of ignorance, which does not do any sin, which is all knowledge full, which knows the mind and work of all souls, which punishes the sinners, and which does not have any beginning or ending has given the extraordinary Vēdas for the sake of souls that are taking birth and that “thing” is called God.
Meaning of the Ninth Mantra: One who leaves the above said thing (God) and does Upāsana of Nature falls more into the surrounded ignorance and who is immersed fully in enjoying the nature falls further more into greater ignorance.
Meaning of the Tenth Mantra: Scholars and courageous people could differentiate between the fruits of doing Upāsana of God and Upāsana of Nature and that is how they advise people.
Meaning of the Eleventh Mantra: The Scholar who knows the properties, actions, nature and destruction of the existing Universe and who knows in which (Prakrithi) this Universe after destruction gets into its original form and who knows both of them simultaneously, is the one who gets rid of the sorrows caused due to death and does Dharma with this human form and gets salvation.
Meaning of the Twelfth Mantra: Those who do Upāsana (worship) of Idols achieve nothing but fall into deep darkness of ignorance. Similarly even those scholars who just know only the relation between the words and their meanings also fall into deep darkness of ignorance.
Meaning of the Thirteenth Mantra: We have to get benefit from those Scholars who know and advise us the difference between the fruits of Upāsana (worship) of God and Nature. So humans should know the difference and get benefitted accordingly.
Meaning of Fourteenth Mantra: The Scholar who has the true Knowledge of Vidya and its tools, also the knowledge of Prakrithi and its tools and with the help of Upāsana if he knows both of them simultaneously, then he will best use his human body to perform Dharma and get salvation.
Meaning of Fifteenth Mantra: O Karma performing human! You should recall God at the time of death. For your own capacity recall God. Recall what you did in the past. The life in the body joins with its cause in the nature and the dead body should be burnt to ashes.
Meaning of Sixteenth Mantra: O Divine and Self Radian God! I am saluting you to more and more. Since you know everything please remove all wicked and sinister attitude from us. Guide us to gain wealth from knowledge and pleasures from wealth. Please make us follow Dharma and gain all worthy knowledge in the world.
Meaning of the Seventeenth Mantra: God is advising all the humans in this way. “I am the same everywhere here and also in the Sun and Stars. And I am the one who is filled in Sun and Stars and also present everywhere here. I am spread like Ākasam (Vacuum) everywhere. No matter and no one are greater than me. Like a best son who with respect and righteousness takes shelter in my name “Aum”, within that person I will eliminate ignorance and enlighten his soul with knowledge and make him pious. I will remove all sorrows from him and present him with salvation”.
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