The four Vēdas
MATTER IN VĒDAS
Matter described in Vēdas and their differences as explained by Maharshi Dayananda Saraswathi.
Many subjects are described in Vēdas but all of these can be divided into four main categories. These are respectively (1) Vignāna, (2) Karma, (3) Upāsana and (4) Gnāna. These divisions are also called Kāndas.
Using Karma, Upāsana and Gnāna properly and knowing everything from atom to God and getting benefitted from them is called Vignāna. That means (a) knowing God properly and obeying His commands and (b) analyzing the materials created by God by their properties and nature and use them to the required purposes. In both the above said things nominating God is important.
Q.1.Why should we nominate God?
Ans.1.The essence of Vēdas is to put forward God. According to Katōpanishad, the one which is divine, the one which is called Mōksham, the one in which the souls get bliss, the one who is all bliss, the one who does not have even an atom of sorrow and who is called ‘Aum’ is the main object of Vēdas. According to Yoga Darsana ‘Aum’ is the name of God. According to Yajur Vēda 40th Chapter and 17th mantra, we have
God is advising all the humans in this way. “I am the same everywhere here and also in the Sun and Stars. And I am the one who is filled in Sun and Stars and also present everywhere here. I am spread like Ākasam (Vacuum) everywhere. No matter and no one are greater than me. Like a best son who with respect and righteousness takes shelter in my name “Aum”, within that person I will eliminate ignorance and enlighten his soul with knowledge and make him pious. I will remove all sorrows from him and present him with salvation”.
According to Thythireōpanishad, ‘Aum’ is the name of God. The description of the Universe explicitly tells about the God. Following Truth and Dharma is to achieve God. Following the four ashramās with truth and Dharma is for achieving the God. All the Scholars try to achieve the Brahma.
In Vēdas there are two types of Vidya known as (a) Parā and (b) Aparā Vidya. Learning everything from atom to Prakrithi and using them for our benefit is called Aparā Vidya. Knowing the almighty God in the true form is Parā Vidya. This Parā Vidya is much better than Aparā Vidya. The best result what we can get from Aparā Vidya is Parā Vidya.
In Mudakōpanishad Brahma is described in the following manner. “Senses cannot catch it. No one can catch it. It does not have Gōthra. It does not have any Varnna. It does not have senses like eyes, ears etcetera. It does not have hands and legs. It is eternal and all pervading. It is omnipresent. It is the smallest. It does not have destruction. It is flawless. It is the fundamental reason for the Universe. Those who get His presence with the help of meditation become undisturbed.
From the Rig Vēd mantra, (1, 2,75)
[ThadhVishnoh Paramam Padam Sadā Pashyanthi Sūrayah
Divieva Chakshu Rātatam]
Scholars always acknowledge the all pervading (Vishnu), the best, the bliss and the only attainable thing in the Universe as God. There is no place (everywhere), no time (at all times) and no object (all objects) difference in the God. That means He is everywhere, He is at all times and He is in all objects of the Universe. Just like sunlight spreads in Vacuum (Ākāsam) and in that light as vision is spread, God is self radiating and is spread in the entire Universe. There is nothing better place than achieving Him. That is why all the four Vēdas direct us to achieve Him.
In the Vēdantha Sastra written by Maharshi Vyāsa it is given that “In all the sentences of Vēdas only nomination of God is given; in some cases directly and in some cases indirectly. Therefore God is the only important thing to be learnt from Vēdas”.
Also from the above Yajur Vēda mantra (8th Chapter, 36th mantra) we learn that, “There is nothing better than God which is in the Universe. He is pervading in all the worlds and exhibiting His powers. He is the Ruler and King of the Universe. He is the one who gives pleasure to every living thing in the Universe. He created the three types of Agni (Fire, electricity and Sun) along with the others and is called the artist of sixteen arts. The sixteen arts are respectively (1) True analysis, (2) Prānna (Which wears the Universe), (3) Faith in the Truth (Shraddā), (4) Ākāsam, (5) Vāyu, (6) Agni, (7) Jal, (8) Prithvi, (9) Indriyās, (10) Mind, (11) Food, (12) Vēryam (Valor, strength), (13) Penance (Following Dharma and Truth), (14) Mantra (Vēdas), (15) Karmas (All activities) and (16) Names of Visible and Invisible objects.
All these sixteen arts are in the God and he is called Shōdashi. In Prasnōpanishad sixth question these sixteen arts are given.
That is why God is the primary object of Vēdas. Other than God rest of the Universe is secondary. According to Vyākarnna Sastra in the primary and secondary things only primary should be considered. Therefore the essence of Vēdas is to nominate God and achieve Him. Therefore according to the advice given by God in Vēdas, one has to follow the Gnāna, Karma and Upāsana Kandas well and get benefitted in both the worlds (life and Mōksham). We have to be useful to the society and understand the importance of being a human.
In Vēdas the second part is Karma Kanda. In this activities are described. Without activities knowledge and education cannot be achieved.
Ans.2.Outside activities and human activities are related to each other. Even though it is of many types, basically it can be divided into two.
(1) To achieve God. In this we praise the Lord about His greatness and His properties, we advice others about Him, we listen to others about Him, we take the God’s help by praying Him, we follow the Vēdic commands and do according to God, we do Upāsana (knowing the God’s form and getting immersed in it), and we follow the Dharma (Gnāna) by knowing its form and do justice (Impartially accept all types of truth and abandon the untruth). All the above descriptions are the first part of Karma Kanda and by doing the entire things as described above one can get interested in Mōksham.
(2) The second part of Karma Kanda is useful for worldly achievements. Because of this one can get money and desires full filled with Dharma. If one does activities without expecting the results then it is called path of Nishkāma. In this a person will not desire for worldly pleasures. Therefore the result of such Karmas will be best. This result is called Akshaya. In one does activities desirous of pleasures then it is called path of Sakāma. Therefore the person does karmas and enjoys its results and will not be able to get rid of the bindings of birth and death. Therefore such a person will not achieve Mōksham.
The process of Yagna is the most important Karma in the Karmakand of the Vēdas. Starting from Agnihōtra to Aswamēdha every Homam is called Yagna. In these Yagna’s four types of materials are used for putting in fire. (1) Scented materials such as Kasturi, Saffron etcetera. (2) Sweet materials such as Gud, Honey etcetera. (3) Strength producing materials such as Ghee, Milk, Rice etcetera. (4) Health preserving materials such as Herbs. One should acquire all these materials and purify them before using them in the Yagna. Put them in proper proportions in the Homam. Because of this air and rain water get purified and everyone gets pleasure. The above said materials when put in the fire become minute and mix in the air and purify poisonous and dirty gases in the air and rain water and make them good smelling. This is how it is described in Itharēya Brahmana.
Yagna is performed for benefit of society. Whatever benefit a person does to society that much and more benefit the person receives from the system of God. So Yagna is praised in Vēdas and many Sastras. In Shathapatha Brahmana it is given in the following manner regarding Yagna. When materials are put in the fire, hot smoke and steam are produced. The heat produced enters into trees, herbs, plants, air, and water etcetera. On entering these materials these get dried by releasing the vapors from them. These vapors mixing with the air enters the atmosphere. In that vapor the water part is steam and particles mixed with steam part is smoke. These particles collect together and form clouds. Because of this you get good rains.
Because of two methods we get purified air and good rains and these are respectively, (1) God’s creation and (2) Human’s creation. In the God’s creation due to Sun rays flowers and plants give good smelling vapors and water gets evaporated from oceans. These two mix well and form clouds. In the second method humans perform Yagna and clouds are formed as described above. According to Maharshi Dayananda Saraswathi the atmosphere is mixed with both good and bad atoms and molecules. Because of this the rains we get and in turn the herbs, fruits and vegetables formed are also having mixed with good and bad atoms and molecules. Due to this the food and in turn the energy and bodies so formed are also of Mediocre in nature. Because of this Budhi, strength, valor, courage etcetera are also Mediocre in nature. The reason for this is that, “the properties present in the materials of the cause are always present in the result. The result cannot be devoid of the properties of the cause”.
The pollution in the atmosphere is not the mistake of God but it is that of humans. Humans produce all sorts of dirt in the nature and pollute the atmosphere. We bring cattle for the purpose of milk, transport etcetera. When we take benefits and pleasure from these animals then it is our responsibility to remove the dirt these animals produce. We all know that the organic material decomposition produces gases which cause pollution in the atmosphere. Therefore it is the responsibility of humans to remove the pollution and give the society a clean and healthy atmosphere. Where the human population grows there the pollution grows automatically. In modern days we have vehicular pollution to a greater extent. Therefore it becomes absolute necessary to remove the pollution and Yagna is the only way to remove the pollution.
[Let us present scientific evidence how the pollution can be averted with the help of Yagna. Gold in its bulk form is known to be chemically inert. However, nanoparticles of gold on a Titania substrate exhibit remarkable catalytic properties such as the ability to decompose the environmentally hazardous gas sulfur dioxide. The efficiency of this material is 10 times greater than that of commercial catalysts used today. Please refer to the following website for evidence of the above information. Please visit http://www.nacatsoc.org/18nam/Orals/105-Activation%20of%20Gold%20Nanoparticles%20on%20Titania.pdf]
So now, the question is how the above information is related to Yagna? The answer is simple. Generally the materials in the nanoparticles form are more effective than the bulk form. In Yagna what we do is convert bulk matter to nanoparticles and help react with pollutes or catalyze the process of decomposing the pollutants. Today’s modern science is publishing hundreds of scientific evidences regarding the effective role played by nanoparticles than the bulk.
Now the question comes why humans should be responsible in removing the pollution? God created human bodies to produce knowledge. That is why we are able to increase our knowledge. So we have become eligible to follow Dharma and leave Adharma. Other living beings cannot do this and therefore we all are responsible in removing the pollution by performing Yagna and benefit the Universe.
Many people have expressed doubts regarding Yagna and its process. The following Question and answers are extracted from Maharshi Dayananda Saraswathi’s Vēd Bhasyam regarding Yagna and its process.
Q.2a. When valuable materials like Ghee, Kasturi, Sandal wood etcetera are dropped in fire, they are burnt to ashes and wasted. Instead cannot we use them in our food and houses so that they give good smell inside the house and taste to food?
Ans.2a. In general invisibility of a visible object is called destruction. But in truth no material is completely destroyed. When a ball of mud is crushed to minute pieces and blown up in flowing air, the pieces disappear. Then we say that the mud ball has been destroyed. But in essence these minute particles still exist and when joined together can form the mud ball. These minute particles exist in the atmosphere and mixed with air and react with the gases present. Similarly the materials we drop in Yagna are made into minute particles and work towards freeing the atmosphere from the pollutants. Whereas the materials kept in bulk state cannot do the same in the atmosphere. Therefore doing Yagna is essential.
Q.2b. If the entire purpose is to purify the air in the atmosphere why should we do such a pompous process such as Yagna? Why not keep scents at home and let the scented vapor spread in the atmosphere?
Ans.2b.The benefit obtained from Yagna cannot be obtained from other processes. The scent spread by flowers and plants stays in the atmosphere and gives good smell but cannot separate impurities from the air and make a pollution free atmosphere. Whereas due to Yagna the materials dropped in them become minute particles and get heat from the process. So these particles have capacity to separate the pollutants from the air. Also these Yagna produced particles rise up into the atmosphere and purify the rain water and increase the chances of good rain. Due to this we get purified water as rain and this water gives us purified food and medicinal products. When materials like Ghee are put in the fire of Yagna, the smell of Ghee can be felt even by persons far from the place of Yagna. This means the Ghee kept in the fire is not destroyed but has become minute to do some chemical process.
Q.2c. Let us agree that there are benefits in doing Yagna. But why should we chant mantras while doing the Yagna?
Ans.2c. When Yagna is performed we see with eyes, touch the materials with hands and chant the mantras. By chanting mantras we are praising, praying and doing Upāsana of God. The uses of Yagna are present in the sentences of the mantra. Therefore the uses are reminded and remembered. Also due to chanting several times Vēd mantras are memorized. Also people will know about God and will not become atheists. Every good deed should begin with praying God. That is why chanting of mantras is essential.
Q.2d. What is wrong if we say the benefits of Yagna in normal words or sentences and not chant mantras?
Ans.2d. Vēdas contain mantras and these mantras are in every way illusion free and contain only truth because God is having complete knowledge. Whereas, the sentences compiled by ordinary humans may not contain the complete truth and may not be illusion free. Off course, the sentences given by Āpta (One who has complete knowledge of the subject and is impartial and does benefit to the society) person can be trusted. But such persons depend only on Vēd and not on ordinary sentences.
Q.2e. Is it necessary to do Yagna in a specialized device? And is it necessary to have the priests for that Yagna?
Ans.2e. All that is useful for the Yagna is necessary. A specially designed furnace is necessary for the Yagna because, doing Homam in that furnace the fire quickly rises and the materials dropped in it will quickly become minute particles, get heated and mix with air. The furnace is necessary because the materials dropped in it will not scatter away. This furnace should be like a open box with its base one fourth that of its opening. This furnace can be made of metals like Gold, Silver, Brass or even mud. Yagnasāla is necessary for protection from wind and dust. To perform the Yagna with chanting the mantras priests are necessary. (Even a single person can perform Yagna if he knows the process well).
Q.3.What is the meaning of Devatha in the Yagna?
Ans.3. Agni, Vāyu, Sūrya, Chandra, the 8 Vasus, best scholars, 11 Rudras, 12 months, priests, honest people, divine materials, God, Indra or Electricity, honest money, Varuna or water or good material etcetera are referred in Vēd as Devatha. In Karma section of Vēd, in Yagna, Devatha refers to mantra. Gayathri Chanddass is referred by Agni etcetera. Because of these mantras we will know the duties of humans. In which mantra Agni is being appointed, that mantra Devatha becomes Agni. God has given indications about the importance of each mantra by reference to these Devathas.
Q.4.What is called as Divatam (divinity)?
Ans.4.The object whose properties are described in the mantra, that particular object is called Divatam. The signs of the meanings given in the mantras are called the Dēvatha Lingam (indicator). For example,
The above mantra is the 17th mantra of the 22 chapter of Yajur Vēda. The meaning of this mantra is as follows. “The material due to which one gains divine pleasures, due to which good food materials are obtained and which can be used as ambassador for achieving the objectives is called Agni. All the humans should learn from that scholar the art of Agni who knows how to use this Agni well”. In this mantra the word ‘Agni’ is used as a sign of Dēvatha.
Q.5.So what did we learn from this?
Ans.5.With this we should understand that this mantra is Agni Dēvatha. The mantras which are dedicated on the name of a material are referred to as Dēvathas. On the name of Dēvatha which properties are described and which meaning should be taken are described very well in Neruktam and Brahmanas. Both the mantras and the materials on which the mantras are described by the God are referred by Dēvatha. Therefore we should know the meaning of the mantras from the name of the Dēvatha. Because of these Dēvathas, scholars praise, learn and teach many subjects from these Dēvathas. From the word Ruch (meaning praise) the word Ruk (mantra) has been formed.
These mantras are of three types: (1) Indirect, (2) Direct or Popular, and (3) Spiritual. With this we have to understand that these mantras only can give us all the materials names and education of past, present and future. That is why the mantras are named as Dēvathas. These are the meanings of Dēvathas in Karma Kanda.
According to Maharshi Yaska, “in which mantra there is no explicit indication of a material on the name of Dēvatha; in all such cases we should take Yagna as Dēvatha. There are three types of Yagna which are described in the Agni Dēvatha Bhāshyam. (1) Starting from Agnihotra to Aswamedha all Yagnas, (2) From Prakrithi to planets all science and technology, and (3) with the association of good people getting Vignāna and Yōgam. These are the Dēvathas of the mantras or by which this Yagna can be achieved are also called Dēvathas. And mantras which are different from these have God as the Dēvatha. Where humans are mentioned in the mantras, humans are Dēvathas. But mainly in Yagna only mantras and God are Dēvathas. To achieve Yagna only mantras and God are important.
Q.6.In which cases and in what circumstances can we refer as Dēvatha?
Ans.6.Donation: On a material relieving one’s ownership and giving it to others is called donation. God has given the entire Universe to living beings. Therefore He is called as Dēvatha.
Scholars give education to others. Therefore they are also called Dēvathas. Sun and Stars give light to the entire world. Therefore these are called Dēvathas. Teaching about truth and Dharma is done by parents, Teacher and Guests. Therefore these are also called Dēvathas. Sun rays, Prānna and Sun like stars are called Dēvathas. Here also the one who gives light to Sun and Stars is none other than God. Therefore God is the most liked Dēvatha. According to Katōpanishad, “Sun, moon, stars, electricity and fire etcetera cannot give light to God. Because of God’s light these all are shining. Therefore there is no self radiant body other than God. Therefore God is the most liked Dēvatha.
Q.7.Why are Vēdas called as Chanddass?
Ans.7.Because of which all the truth in the Universe is thought and analyzed, those are called mantras. Because of mantras all education is obtained. Vēdas protect our soul from doing sin and becoming sorrow. Therefore Vēdas are like a protective cover on our souls. Since Vēdas are useful like Chādana (Cover), these (Vēdas) are called Chanddass.
Q.8. Why are Indriyās called Dēvathas?
Ans.8. The following is from Yajur Vēda (4th Mantra, 40th Chapter).
One and only One who is immobile but moves the Universe in a regular fashion and is faster than the mind (That means He is present everywhere at every time) and is present everywhere before everything is God. The five senses (Eyes, ears, nose, skin and tongue) cannot access Him. In Him we (Humans) all should dedicate our Karmas. That means all the five senses and mind cannot access Him.
Since sound, touch, vision, taste, smell, truth and untruth are perceived by these senses, these senses are called Dēvathas. Writing, teaching and describing the details of the properties of bodies exactly the way in which God has given is called praise. Since all the senses do it they are referred as Dēvathas.
Similarly we have to understand about Dēvathas at other descriptions. But God has praised in different mantras about different materials. These materials are called Dēvathas. Also those mantras are referred by Dēvathas. Rules are given to address the Dēvatha word in the prescribed meanings. These rules are present in Karma Kanda. Both Upāsana and Gnāna are the Nishkāma part of the Karma Kanda. In this the only Dēvatha is God. To achieve Him we all have to do Praising, Praying and Upāsana of God. In the Sakāma part we pray God to fulfill our desires. Therefore God is important at all the parts of Karma Kanda. There is no place where we can ignore Him. The essence of Vēdas is to understand this philosophy.
Q.9.Why should we do Upāsana of God alone and why not the other Dēvathas described in the Vēdas?
Ans.9.We have to do Upāsana of God alone and not that of materials used for worldly purposes. The reason for this is that God is the only thing that has the properties such as omnipotent, ubiquitous etcetera. In Vēdas Upāsana of God alone is prescribed in many ways. All other Dēvathas exist because of the power given to them by God. These Dēvathas are not self-powered and self radiant. All these Dēvathas are made for definite purposes and are therefore not useless. We can use them for some or the other purpose and are karma bearing materials. Because these materials are produced in the Universe by God they are sometimes referred as ‘Ātma born’ and because these are used for Karma purposes they are sometimes referred as ‘Karma born’. God is like chariot for these Dēvathas. God is like horse for these Dēvathas on which they can move. God is like a weapon to these Dēvathas by which they get victory. God is the one who produced, wore and protects these Dēvathas. There is no one or no Dēvatha Greater than God.
According to Rig Vēda mantra
[Yē Trimsathi Thraya Sahrō Dēvāsō Barhi Rāsadan
Vida Naha Dvithāsanan]
Let the 33 Dēvathas be in my mind and know the God. Let the Karma Dēvathas and Gnāna Dēvathas keep all bad habits away from them.
The above mantra is 31st mantra of 14th Chapter of Yajur Vēda. This mantra describes the 33 Dēvathas. But for Upāsana only God is eligible. Because of Upāsana all the worldly fears subside.
In Atharva Vēda it is given that these 33 Dēvathas are protecting this Universe. Also it is given that these 33 Dēvathas are known only by few Scholars.
In Brāhmanās the 33 Dēvathas are described in the following manner by Yāgnavalkya. Agni, Prithvi, Vāyu, Anthariksham, Jal, Sun, Moon and Stars are called Vasus. These are called Vasus because everything in the Universe resides in these eight. Prānna, Apāna, Vyāna, Samāna, Udāna, Nāga, Kūrma, Krukala, Dēvadatha, and Dananjaya are the Ten Prānna and the eleventh is Jēvāthma. These eleven are called Rudras. These are called Rudras because when these eleven leave the human body, everyone cries. Since these make the relatives of the person who died, these are called Rudras. The twelve months of the year which take every ones age and make the time move are called Āditya. Vidyuth is called Indra and Yagna is called Prajāpathi. All these 33 are called the Dēvathas.
Similarly Neruktam says Place, Name and Birth are three Dēvathas. Shathapatha Brāhmannā says Voice is Prithvi, Mind is Anthariksham, and Prānna is Dyuo (The part of the Universe where celestial objects like Sun and Stars exist). Also Shathapatha Brāhmannā says that Food, Prānna and Adhyargam are Dēvathas. Adhyargam means the fundamental Vāyu which is present in every material in the world and is responsible for the material’s existence and progress.
None of the Dēvathas mentioned above are worth for Upāsana. For getting the worldly commitments these Dēvathas are useful. But God is the only one who is worth for Upāsana. God is bearing everything in this Universe, He is all pervading, He is the reason for everything, He does not have a starting or ending, He is never born; He is the Judge-so He is the only Dēvatha which is the 34th Dēvatha and the one to be done Upāsana. One who does Upāsana to any object other than God is equal to animal in between Scholars.
Q.10.From what word did the Dēvatha derived?
Ans.10.From the word Divu, Dēvatha is derived. The ten meanings of Divu are respectively play, desire to win over enemies, activity, sleep, laxity, radiance, praise, serene, brilliance and Gathi (Gnāna or motion or obtainment). The last five are applied mainly for God and with less importance in the others. The first five are applied in general to every Dēvatha. Therefore in both the cases the word Dēvatha is applied.
Q.11.When Vēdas say that we can pray both God and other Dēvathas (materials like fire, air etcetera), why only do Upāsana of God and not other materials?
Ans.11.Respecting others, praising them and doing what they like is equal to praying. Similarly knowing the properties of materials and doing according to usage and appreciating the materials work is praying. But Upāsana is done only to God. Upāsana is different from just praying. Therefore where ever the word Upāsana is found in Vēdas it is meant for God and not for other Dēvathas.
These Dēvathas are divided into two categories, (1) Visible (2) Invisible.
Visible Dēvathas: Mother, Father, Teacher, Guest, Agni, Prithvi, Jal, Sun, Moon, Vidyuth and Stars.
Invisible Dēvathas: Eleven Rudras, Twelve Ādityas, Mind, Five Senses, Anthariksham, Vāyu, Dyuo, Mantras and Duties.
Apart from all those mentioned above God is the only Dēvatha who is invisible and Upāsana is done to God alone and none of the above. All others are used for praying and not for doing Upāsana.
Q.12.Some Indian and some European Scholars like Max Muller say that there is descriptions of praying Agni (materials like), Mitra, and Vāyu etcetera in Vēdas and also that these Vēdas are of just 3100 years old. Is this true?
Ans.12.No this is not true. From the beginning of the creation Āryans always did Upāsana of God whose names are Agni, Mitra, and Varuna etcetera. Since these are also the names of material objects these scholars wrongly thought that we were doing Upāsana of material objects. Then the question comes why should God have the same name as the materials? The answer is very simple. When two materials have something in common we refer one just like the other. For example during Sun set we say that Sun is shining like Gold. It does not mean Sun is Gold or Gold is Sun. In a similar manner some of God’s properties match with Agni, Varuna and Mitra etcetera. Therefore we refer to God as Agni when His properties are like Agni. Let us take an example of Agni. Agni can combine or separate two elements. Similarly God can separate sorrows from us and add intelligence to our mind. In such a case God is referred as Agni. So it is clear that Āryans never did Upāsana of Dēvathas other than God.
Sree Max Muller does not know the correct meaning of the mantras. In the following Mantra from Yajur Vēda (Chapter 13, 4th mantra),
[Hirannya Gharbhaha Samavartha Thāgrē
Bhūthasya Jāthaha Pathirēka Āsēth
Sadadhāra Prithivīm Dyāmuthēmām
Kasmi Dēvāya Havishā Vidhēma]
Sree Max Muller thought the meaning of Hirannya is Gold. So he thought that because Gold is discovered only 3000 years back, the Vēdas are no older than that. But his thinking is definitely wrong. Had he gone through our Sastras and Neruktam, then he could have probably understood the correct meaning of Hirannya. We will give the proofs below for the meaning of Hirannya from Brāhmanās and Other Sastras.
Hirannyam = Jyothi, Vignāna. One who has the form of Jyothi or Vignāna is called Hirannya Gharbhaha.
Hirannyam = Amrutham (Nectar)-Mōksham. One who has the ability to give Mōksham is called Hirannya Gharbhaha. (Shathapatha Brāhmanna)
Hirannyam = Jyothi-Light. One who has Sun and Stars in his womb is called Hirannya Gharbhaha. (Neruktam)
Hirannyam = Fame. One who has form of fame is called Hirannya Gharbhaha. (Ithareya Brāhmanna)
Hirannyam = Jyothi-Jēvāthma. One who has power in the womb is called Hirannya Gharbhaha. (Shathapatha Brāhmanna)
Hirannyam = Jyothi, Indra, Surya, Agni. The one who possess these in His ability is called Hirannya Gharbhaha. (Shathapatha Brāhmanna)
All these meanings are reflected only in God and none else. And the meaning of Hirannyam is not Gold. Therefore by the exact meaning it is understood that Vēdas are very old and not new. Therefore what Sree Max Muller said is not correct.
Q.13.According Sree Max Muller Chanddass and Mantras are different. Is this correct?
Ans.13.Chanddass, Nigamam, Vēda, Mantra and Shruthi are used in turn for Vēdas. Because of thinking these Vēdas are called mantras. These mantras cover the soul and protect it from ignorance. Therefore these are called Chanddass. These Chanddass are also referred as Dēvathas. By listening, reading and exercising these Vēdas, humans are able to know the truth and untruth. Therefore these are called Shruthis. In Vēdas only factual education is present. Therefore these are called Nigamam. Therefore these all are same and again Sree Max Muller is wrong. Only Vēdic Samskrutham can solve the meanings of Vēdas. Therefore we have to refer to Neruktam and other Brāhmannas and Sastras for the correct meaning.
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