Venkata R Chaganti



  1. Ēsa
  2. Kēna
  3. Kata
  4. Prasna
  5. Mundaka
  6. Māndūkya
  7. Itharēya
  8. Thythirīya
  9. Chāndogya
  10. Brihadaranyaka


  1. Ithareya
  2. Shathapatha
  3. Sāma
  4. Gōpatha


  1. Ayurveda
  2. Dhanurveda
  3. Ghandarva Vidya
  4. Artha Vēda or Shilpa Vidya


  1. Siksha
  2. Astadyayi
  3. Mahabhashyam
  4. Negantu/ Neruktam
  5. Chanddassu
  6. Jyothishyam


  1. Visheshikam
  2. Nyayam
  3. Yogam
  4. Shankya
  5. Pūrva Memāmsa
  6. Vēdantha


  1. Rāmāyana 
  2. Maha Bharatha


  1. ManuSmruthi  

Ithareya Upanishad

First Chapter –Section One


  1. Summary of first shloka: Before creation of the universe Prakrithi and Paramāthma were present and appeared to have no difference between them. There is no other object or material present before creation. That is, before creation the state of the universe can be called as Prallaya and in that state the universe was in its fundamental form called Prakrithi. Prakrithi and Paramāthma were indistinguishable during that period. That is to say that there was no other object to distinguish between them. It means during Prallaya no one is alive to identify these two separately. We can say that after creation we can distinguish between Prakrithi and Paramāthma. Conclusion is that Paramāthma and Prakrithi are two definite different materials. Creation means turning fundamental Prakrithi to the present visible state but not to produce something out of nothing.
  2. Summary of second shloka: God mainly created four worlds viz., (a) Ambhah, (b) Marīchi, (c) Mara and (d) Āpas. All the self radiating objects like Sun and Stars are called as Ambhah and Dyuo is the supporting place for Ambhah. The rays coming from all these objects are called Marīchi and are present in the space called Anthariksham (Interstitial space). Mara means death. The world in which life has death is called earth. So mortal people live on earth. Water is called Āpas and it spreads everywhere in the earth.
  3. Summary of third shloka: Now the creation of the rulers of the world has begun after creating the four worlds. From water Virāt Purusha was created. The entire accessible universe is regarded as Virāt Purusha. Virāt means that which is having different forms.
  4. Summary of fourth shloka: God agitated (knowledgeable process) the Virāt Purusha. With this agitation sound was produced. From that sound heat was produced. Then the life sustaining Prānna was produced. From this Prānna, Vāyu was produced. Then the sense of visibility called Netrēndriya or Chakshu was produced. From this Chakshu, Āditya was produced. Then the sense of audibility called Sravanēndriya or Shrothram was produced. From this Shrothram directions were produced. Then sense of touch, skin was produced. From this skin, hair was produced. From this hair medicine and food were produced. From the heart of Virāt Purusha, Mannassu or mind was produced. And from this mind Chandra was produced. From the naval of Virāt Purusha, Apāna (Excretory system) was produced. From this Apāna death was produced. After that genital organs were produced. From this semen was produced. From the semen water was produced.



  1. All the materials that were produced by God became active in the Universe. These materials made the Virāt Purusha hungry and thirsty. These materials requested God to give them a house in which they can stay and have their food. [We have to understand that these materials are lifeless and cannot speak are ask. This is the way of writing in those days. So the author had chosen to personify the materials and give us the knowledge. Also we should understand that food for Agni is materials like wood etc,. Similarly for Jal, Agni is the food.].
  2. For these materials cows were given as house. These materials felt these are insufficient. Then horses were given as house for these materials to stay and have their food. These materials still were not satisfied and felt it insufficient.
  3. Then human body was given for these materials as their house. Then all the materials felt happy and expressed their willingness to stay in the human body. These felt that the human body was built very well and it definitely makes a good home for them. Then God ordered these materials to stay in the places where they fit.
  4. Agni became voice and entered into the face. Vāyu became Prānna (life) and entered into the nose. Āditya became vision and entered into the eyes. Dikk has become sound and entered into the ears. Ōshadi and Vanaspathi became hair and entered into the skin. Chandra became Manassu and entered into the heart. Mruthyu became Apāna and entered into the naval. Jal became semen and entered the genital organs.
  5. Hunger and Thirst requested God to give them their place. Then God gave them place in those materials and gave hunger and thirst share along with those materials. Therefore when Yagna is performed hunger and thirst have equal share along with the materials.


  1. Then God wanted to created materials for the worlds and the rulers of the worlds.
  2. Then God agitated the Jal and produced food.
  3. Then the human body tried to take food with the voice. But the food moved away from it. If voice could take food, on speaking of food a human should be satisfied.
  4. Then the human body tried to take food with the Prānna. But the food moved away from it. If Prānna could take food, on smelling the food a human should be satisfied.
  5. Then human tried to take food with eyes and failed otherwise on seeing the food he should be satisfied.
  6. Then human tried to take food with ears and failed otherwise on hearing about food he should be satisfied.
  7. Then human tried to take food with the skin and failed otherwise on touching the food he should be satisfied.
  8. Then human tried to take food with Manassu and failed otherwise on thinking about food he should be satisfied.
  9. Then human tried to take food with genital organs and failed otherwise on rejecting food he should be satisfied.
  10. Then human tried to take food with Apāna through mouth and succeeded. Therefore as long as Apāna Vāyu works well in the body, it has longer life.
  11. Jēvāthma wanted to enter the body. Without Jēvāthma why the eye wants to see? Why the ears want to listen? Why the noses want to smell? Why the mouth wants to speak? Why the skin wants to touch? Why Apāna wants to take food? Why the genital organs want to give out semen? If these want to do themselves who am I? Thinking this way the Jēvāthma wants to enter the body. There are two paths to enter the body. One from the top and one from the bottom.
  12. Then the Jēvāthma choose to enter through the top hole called Brahma hole. This door has become famous as Nāndanam because a Yogi sends Jēvāthma from this hole at the time of death for attaining salvation. There are three places where this Jēvāthma stays in the body.[ Some people call it Mātru, Pitru and Nija. Some people say that the body is divided into three parts. If Jēvāthma stays at the bottom then he will do bad Karmas and if he stays in the middle he will do good and bad mixed Karmas. And if he stays at the top he will do good Karmas. Some people say that the three places are eyes, throat and heart. When awaken he will be in eyes, while in dreams he will be in throat and while in deep sleep called as Shushupthi he will be in the heart.]
  13. This Jēvāthma after entering the body does everything according to the things he experiences. He will not be able to realize Paramāthma until either by the grace of God or by the Scholars preaching. After realizing Paramāthma, he does not wonder anything that is seen by him in the Universe.
  14. After seeing Paramāthma through his Buddhi, scholars say “Idandram” means I saw it. But many scholars say “Indram” instead of “Idandram”. The word “Idandram” indicates direct vision. Since we cannot see Paramāthma directly, scholars refer it as “Indram”.



  1. Jēvāthma first enters the semen of the male. This semen is the summary of all the parts of the body of the father. Therefore the male becomes pregnant first. When this semen enters the female (mother) and later on it takes birth as a human body. Entering the womb of the mother is considered as first birth of the Jēvāthma.
  2. When the semen enters the female it becomes part of her body and does not give her pain. Then the female starts protecting it as part of her body.
  3. When the female gives birth to the child, the father will perform the basic rituals and develops the child. The development of the child is considered as the development of the father himself. Like this everyone in the world becomes attached to their children and this birth is considered as the second birth to Jēvāthma.
  4. The newly born child becomes the representative of his father’s good deeds. The child’s father does everything he could do in this world and dies in his old age. This child after growing becomes a father to his child. This new child birth becomes the third birth of the Jēvāthma.
  5. In Vēdas it is given like this. “It is surprising that the fetus in the womb knows the fundamental materials (like Agni etc.,) of this world and all the births it took previously. Also it realized that a number of metallic bodies protected it. Afterwards due to the nature of coming out of the body it realized that it came out of the body quickly”. This description was given by Vāmadēva Maharshi when he was in the womb.
  6. Knowing like this Vāmadēva Maharshi left this body. Leaving this body through Brahma hole, fulfilled all his desires by getting salvation.




  1. Who is the one that is to be meditated? Is it Jēvāthma or Paramāthma? Due to whom we are able to see the world? Due to whom we are able to listen? Due to whom we are able to taste the food? Due to whom we are able to feel the touch? Due to whom we are able to we are able to smell? Due to whom we are able to speak?
  2. This heart and the mind work due to Jēvāthma. Knowing something well and able to follow the instructions, specialized knowledge, capable knowledge, not forgetting the things that were seen and heard, vision, ability to bear, ability to think, independence in getting the materials that are known, sharpness in thinking, remembrance, determination, knowing as it is, ability to live, eagerness, desire to control are the characters of Jēvāthma. But these become capable only because of Paramāthma.
  3. Brahmins, Khsatriyas, Vysyas, Senses, Pancha Bhūthās, bodies of the insects, life that comes out of eggs, life that comes out of wombs, life that comes out of sweat, life that comes out of breaking the earth (plants), horses, cows, men, elephants, all the animals, birds, immobile things etc., all of these are under the leadership of the Paramāthma and have Paramāthma as the foundation. Therefore Paramāthma is the ultimate and the greatest.
  4. This Jēvāthma, due to the grace of Paramāthma after leaving the body will get salvation and will be free from the cycle of birth and death.


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