Venkata R Chaganti


  1. Ēsa
  2. Kēna
  3. Kata
  4. Prasna
  5. Mundaka
  6. Māndūkya
  7. Itharēya
  8. Thythirīya
  9. Chāndogya
  10. Brihadaranyaka


  1. Ithareya
  2. Shathapatha
  3. Sāma
  4. Gōpatha


  1. Ayurveda
  2. Dhanurveda
  3. Ghandarva Vidya
  4. Artha Vēda or Shilpa Vidya


  1. Siksha
  2. Astadyayi
  3. Mahabhashyam
  4. Negantu/ Neruktam
  5. Chanddassu
  6. Jyothishyam


  1. Visheshikam
  2. Nyayam
  3. Yogam
  4. Shankya
  5. Pūrva Memāmsa
  6. Vēdantha


  1. Rāmāyana 
  2. Maha Bharatha


  1. ManuSmruthi  


Introduction: This Yōga Darshana is written by Patanjali Maharshi. According to scholars Patanjali Maharshi also wrote Grammar and Ayurvēda theorems. This Yōga Darshana is divided into four parts viz. (1) Samādhi, (2) Sādhana, (3) Vibhūthi, and (4) Kivalya.

In Samādhi Yōgam we have 51 theorems. In this part the meaning of Yōga is explained as Samādhi and the author explains clearly the character of Yōga. Resisting the thoughts in the Manassu is called as Samādhi. In this chapter we will learn how to control the mind business and tricks to resist the thoughts. According to the author, one who resists thoughts can know himself (Jēvāthma).

In Sādhana Yōgam we have 55 theorems. In this chapter author explains a number of tricks to sustain the practice of Yōga or Samādhi. The reason for all the pains and sufferings in the world are due to ignorance. The author thoroughly explained about ignorance and the results of ignorance as attachment and hatred. Because of these two one gets into the birth and death cycle. Also in this chapter the difference between Jēvāthma and Prakruthi is explained. Also this Sādhana Yōga is called as Astānga Yōgam because of the eight parts that are explained in this part. These are respectively Yama, Niyama, Āsana, Prānnāyāma, Pratyāhāra, Dhāranna, Dhyāna, and Samādhi.

In Vibhūthi Yōgam the author explained about Samyama and the Siddhi that is obtained to Yōgi because of Samyama. According to the author, until the Yōgi acquires Astānga Yōga, he cannot get Samyama. The Yōgi who attains Samyama can do many miracles and great works in the Universe. But one who wants to achieve Kivalya will not get any interest in the magical powers of Samyama. In this Yōgam there are 55 theorems.

In the Kivalya Yōgam we have 34 theorems. In this chapter the author clarifies about different types of Siddhi and Kivalya as the last step in the practice of Yōga. In this chapter author explains how a Yōgi can take the form of different bodies and perform his remaining Karmas.

Samādhi Pādam:

  1. Samādhi Shastra has started.
  2. To resist the thought process is called Yōgam.
  3. When thoughts are resisted, one will be with oneself (Jēvāthma).
  4. When thoughts are in progress Jēvāthma will take an equal form of the thoughts. [Jēvāthma does not change form. But due to the thought process it does not realize itself and considers the thought process as itself.]
  5. There are two kinds of thought processes. (a) Rājasic and Tāmasic are called difficult thought processes and (b) Sāthvic is called easy thought processes. These processes are again of five types. [These all thought processes have to be resisted in order to attain Samādhi.]
  6. The five types are Pramānnam, Viparyayam, Vikalpam, Nidra, and Smruthi.
  7. Pramānnam (Proof) is of three types viz. Prathyaksham (which is accessible by senses), Anumānam (By guessing or by doubt according to the past experience) and Āgamamu (Shastra).   
  8. Viparyayam means illusion. [Illusion is of five types viz. ignorance, attachment, deep attachment, hatred and dark hatred.]
  9. When someone hears about an object that does not exist but derives a thought process imagining it is called Vikalpam.
  10. Nidra means deep sleep in which one does not get dreams.
  11. Remembering something without any change to what was known earlier is called Smruthi.
  12. Only with practice and detachment one can resist thought processes.
  13. Resisting thought process and with the help of detachment one should try to focus the mind. This is called practice.
  14. Practice should be done for as long as possible in order to attain stability and no need of Practice in deep sleep.
  15. Having no interest in worldly pleasures, not desiring anything that is worthy or unworthy and also showing no interest in anything that is taught is called detachment.
  16. The detachment produced by knowing that Jēvāthma is different from the Prakruthi is called Param (“Other” detachment).
  17. Vitharkam, Vichāram, Ānandam and Asmitha cause Sampragnyātha Samādhi. [Focusing the mind on a definite physical object makes the mind in that form. This is called Vitharkam. Focusing on Pancha Tanmātras is called Vichāram. Focusing on the senses is called Ānandam. Imagining Paramāthma as Jēvāthma is called Asmitha.]
  18. Not having any of the three thought processes viz. Sāthvic, Rājasic and Thāmasic is called as Asampragnyātha Samādhi.
  19. Resisting the thought process but focusing on one of the Pancha Bhūthās considering it as Paramāthma is a kind of Asampragnyātha Samādhi and is called Bhava Pratyaya. [This is not the one that is wanted by a Yōgi who prefers salvation.]
  20. Yōgi ’s who are proceeding for salvation can get it by following the ideas such as Shraddha, Vēryam, Smruthi, Samādhi and Pragnya and such a kind of Asampragnyātha Samādhi is called Upāya Pratyaya. [Having ideas of Yōga due to detachment is called Shraddha. Due to Shraddha one tries to acquire knowledge from Āchārya or Shāstras. This is called Vēryam. Remembering what is learnt is called Smruthi. On following the path of Yōga one attains Sampragnyātha Samādhi. With the above four a Yōgi becomes all knowledgeable. This is called Pragnya. But a Yōgi wants salvation and nothing else.]
  21. One who does with a lot of practice to obtain salvation gets it quickly.
  22. The practice is of three types viz. soft, medium and hard. Therefore by trying hard one gets salvation quickly.
  23. By meditating on Paramāthma one can get salvation more quickly.
  24. The one who does not have ignorance, Karmas pertaining to Dharma and Adharma and the one who does not have attachments is called as Paramāthma.
  25. Where the knowledge is infinity or where the knowledge is limit less that thing is called as Paramāthma.
  26. Paramāthma is the teacher for all and to all Rishis existed till now because He has no beginning or ending.
  27. The name of the Paramāthma is ‘AUM’.
  28. Chanting ‘AUM’ in the mind with its meaning is called Prannidhānam.
  29. Because of chanting ‘AUM’ in the mind, Jēvāthma will see itself different from Prakruthi and will avoid interruptions as will be described in the forth coming theorems.
  30. Vyādhi (Decease to the physical or mental body), Sthyānam (Not having strength to exercise Yōga even though there is a desire for it), Samshaya (Doubting whether Yōga will be possible or not), Pramāda (Not exercising Yama and Niyama), Ālasyam (Laziness and Obesity), Avirathi (Having desires to acquire worldly pleasures), Branthi Darshana (Not realizing the truth in the Yōga taught by scholars), Alabdabhumikathvam (Even though exercising Yōga not able to achieve some of the Yōgi c states), and  Anavastitham (Not able to remain even after achieving some states in Yōga) are the interruptions in attaining Samādhi.
  31. Dhukkam (Pains which are of three types viz. Ādhyāthmikam, ĀdhiBhouthikam and Ādhidivikam.), Dhourmanasyam (Suffering in mind due to lack of fulfillment of desires), Āsana (Sitting posture), Aangamējayathvam (Undue vibration of body parts), shvāsa (Breathing in without having control) and Prashvāsa (Breathing out without having control). These are the results of the above (Theorem 30) said interruptions.
  32. To overcome these interruptions one should practice chanting ‘AUM’ in the mind with its meaning.
  33. Being friendly with persons in happiness, having mercy on persons who are suffering, having love for pious persons and being disinterested in sinner puts one’s mind in a state of calm.
  34. By exercising Prānnāyāma one will be able to stabilize his Manassu. [The process of Prānnāyāma takes four steps. (1) Exhale the air with great force and stop it out for as long as possible. While doing this the anus should be pulled upward. The air should be exhaled with both the nostrils and not just one nostril. Try to stop the air outside without holding the noses with hand. If not possible use the hand to hold the noses closed. When not able to withstand stopping the breath, slowly inhale and fill the lungs. Now repeat the process of exhaling with force and stopping the air outside for as long as possible and slowly breath in to fill the lungs.  (2) Inhale the air to fill the lungs as much as possible. Then stop the air inside for as long as possible. Do not use hands to hold the noses for stopping the air. If not possible then only use the hands to stop exhaling. When not able to stop the air any longer slowly exhale out the air and then again slowly fill the lungs and repeat the process. (3) In the third process exhale the air completely out and stop it there as long as possible. When stopping is no longer possible inhale the air into the lungs and completely fill it. Now stop the air in the lungs from going out for as long as possible. Then slowly exhale and stop breathing and repeat the process. (4) In this process first exhale the air and stop it outside as long as possible. When not able to withstand instead of inhaling try to exhale again. When not able to do it any more inhale the air slowly to fill the lungs. Again exhale the air out and repeat the process. In a similar fashion we can do it by inhaling the air into the lungs and fill it completely. Now hold it as long as possible. When not able to stop the air in the lungs instead of exhaling, inhale the air into the lungs. When not possible exhale out repeat the process.]
  35. Focus Manassu on one of the senses and meditate. On doing so one will be able to get the best possible output of the senses. For example when one focuses Manassu on the nose and meditates, one will be able to get best aromatic fragrances. Focusing on ears and meditating one will be able hear excellent music and so on.
  36. When Manassu is focused on the heart and meditated one will be rid of suffering and attain brilliance in the Manassu.
  37. Any Rishi will have his Manassu depleted of desires and stabilized against worldly pleasures. When a Yōgi focuses his Manassu on such Manassu of a Rishi and meditate, he will be able to stabilize his mind.
  38. By focusing the Manassu on any object that has come in the dream and meditate on it, a Yōgi will be able to attain a stable Manassu.
  39. By focusing on any desired object and meditating a Yōgi will be able to stabilize his mind. [Focusing should be on naval, heart, Sun or moon or stars or anything that is desirable]
  40. When the Yōgi is able to focus on objects from the minutest to infinity, then the Manassu of the Yōgi is definitely stabilized.
  41. With Practice and meditation if the Yōgi is able to remove the Rājasic and Tāmasic nature from the Manassu, only then the Sāthvic nature will remain. Just like a pure crystal reflects the colors near it, similarly the Sāthvic Manassu of the Yōgi will take the shape of the objects which he is focusing. Initially he will be able achieve this state for things which the senses can access. Then he will be able to achieve it for the senses. Then afterwards he will be able to achieve it for Asmitha. The Sāthvic change of the Manassu which is related to matter of the senses, senses and Asmitha is called Sampragnyātha Samādhi.
  42. When the name of the object, the object itself and the knowledge of the object are present as a single entity in the Manassu, then such a Manassu is said to achieve Savitharka Sampragnyātha Samādhi.
  43.  When a person in Savitharka Sampragnyātha Samādhi is able to see the object only and the name and the knowledge are absent then that state of Manassu is called Nirvitharka Sampragnyātha Samādhi. [Yōgi  in this sate makes the object present in his Manassu and preaches it while joining the name and knowledge to it]
  44. Similarly Savichāra and Nirvichāra Sampragnyātha Samādhi should be understood. These two are related to minute objects. Whereas Savitharka and Nirvitharka Sampragnyātha Samādhi are related to visible objects.
  45. Both Savichāra and Nirvichāra Sampragnyātha Samādhi have Prakruthi as the lower limit.
  46. All the four types that were described above come under the category of Sampragnyātha Samādhi.
  47. Vishārdathvam is a state of Nirvichāra Sampragnyātha Samādhi. When this is achieved the Yōgi is said to have achieved Pragnā Prasādam. [Brilliance of the Nirvichāra Manassu is said to have rid of Rājasic and Tāmasic natures. Such a state of Manassu is called Nirvichāra Vishārdathvam. In such a state if the Yōgi is able to see all the objects whether opaque, or far, or near, or big, or small, or general, or special then he is said to have achieved Pragnā Prasādam. This is a wonderful state for the Yōgi. This Pragnā Prasādam is also called as Ādhyāthma Prasādam or Sphuta Pragnā Lōkam or Samādhi Pragnā or Rrhuthambharā Pragnā or Sathva Purushānyathākhyāthi]
  48. This state of the Yōgi s is called Rrhuthambharā Samādhi Pragnā. [Rrutham means which bears an object without mixing with its name or knowledge]
  49. Science (Shāstra) gives general or broad idea about an object. Similarly Anumāna Pramānnam gives general idea but not anything special. But, Samādhi Pragna gives the specialty of the object which is different from Shāstras and Anumāna Pramānnam.
  50. The state which is obtained due to Nirvichāra Sampragnyātha Samādhi will not allow any other state to exist.
  51. Nirvichāra Vishārdhyam generates Paravirāgyam. Because of this state both Pragnya and its state which is generated by Sampragnyātha Samādhi will be destroyed. Then the state of mind is called Asampragnyātha Samādhi. Yōgi who wants to achieve salvation should achieve this state.     

Sādhana Pādam:

Those who can easily focus can achieve Yōga by following the theorems given in Samādhi Yōgam. But for those who are involved deeply into worldly pleasures this Sādhana Yōgam will be of great help to achieve Yōga.

  1. Thappassu (Penance), Swādhyāya (Learning Shāstras), and Ēshwara Prannidhānam are considered as Kriyā Yōgam. [Pleasures and sufferings, hotness and coldness, honor and dishonor etc., are called doublets (Dwandwas). One who bears these Dwandwas and eats food limitedly and also that food which is prescribed by Shāstras is said to be performing Thappassu. Here the word “limitedly” should be understood as that much which does not make the body lose its vitalities and that much only which is sufficient to live healthily. Japam or meditating ‘AUM’ with its meaning and/or learning and discussing with scholars about Vēdas and Upanishads for the purpose of achieving salvation is called Swādhyāya. Devoting all Karmas to Paramāthma and not having interest in the results of Karmas is called Ēshwara Prannidhānam.]
  2. Kriyā Yōgam removes all the resistances (Kleshas) in the path of attaining Samādhi that was described in the Samādhi Yōgam.
  3. There are five types of Kleshas (Resistances) viz. Avidya, Asmitha, Rāga, Dwēsham and Abhinivēsham. These are also called as Viparyayas.   
  4. Avidya is the mother of Asmitha, Rāga, Dwēsham and Abhinivēsham.
  5. Thinking mortal as immortal, untidy as tidiness, suffering as pleasure and Prakruthi as Āthma respectively is called as Avidya.
  6. Feeling Buddhi (Prakruthi) and Jēvāthma as one is Asmitha.
  7. Recollection of the past experienced pleasures and the state of Manassu to achieve them or to search for methods to achieve them is called Rāga.
  8. Recollection of the past experienced sufferings and the state of Manassu to reject them or to search for methods to reject them is called Dwēsham.
  9. The fear of death in a person due to the experience in the past lives is called Abhinivēsham. [In other Shāstras these five Avidya, Asmitha, Rāga, Dwēsham and Abhinivēsham are respectively called as Thammassu, Mōham, Mahāmōham, Thāmisram and Andhathāmisram.]
  10. These five Kleshas are humbled by Kriyā Yōga and become like a burnt seed. [A burnt seed does not sprout]. Then the Manassu will be dissolved in Prakruthi and this process is called as Prathiprasava.
  11. Due to Kriyā Yōga and meditation Kleshas will be destroyed along with the Manassu.
  12. The sins and credits acquired by the Karmas in the different lives have their roots in the Kleshas.
  13. Kleshas are the roots of the Karma goals. If these Kleshas exist then birth, life span and experiencing pleasure and pains become the result of these Karmas [This is called Karma Vipāka].
  14. Dharma and Adharma are the reason for the birth (Janma), life span (Āyuvu) and experience (Bhōgam). The result of these three is either pleasure or suffering.
  15. For a Yōgi the pleasures and sufferings due to change, desire and state of Manassu and all the sensual pleasures arising due to the difference in the properties of the Sathva, Raja and Thama are considered as sufferings only.
  16. Past sufferings have elapsed due to experiencing them. Present sufferings will be elapsed after experiencing them. But future sufferings should be avoided.
  17. Jēvāthma and Prakruthi are the reason for these all sufferings.
  18. That which is responsible for Bhōgam, Apavargam, made of Pancha Bhūthās, Prakāsham, responsible for Kriyā and that which is the Sthithi is called as Drushyam. [Bhōgam  means experiencing pleasure and pain, Apavargam means Differentiating Prakruthi and Purusha, Prakāsham means knowledge which is the business of Buddhi, Kriyā means effort and movement and Sthithi means resistance for Prakāsham and Kriyā.]
  19. Vishesham, Avishesham, Lingamāthram and Alingam are the Properties of Sathva, Rajas and Thammas which are in turn the properties of Drushyam. [Pruthvi, Jal, Agni, Vāyu and Ākāsham {These are Pancha Bhūthās}, Thvakku (skin), Chakshu (eye), Shrōthram (ear), Jihva (tongue) and Ghrānnēndriyam (nose){These are called Gnyānēndriyās}, Vāk (voice), Pānni (hand), Pādam (feet), Pāyuvu (excretory system) and Upastha (genital organ) {These are called Karmēndriyas}. These sixteen are called Vishesham. Shabda (sound), Sparsha (touch), Rūpa (vision), Rasa (taste) and Gandha (smell) Tanmātras {these are the reason for Pancha Bhūthās} and Ahankāra are called Avishesham. Lingamāthram (Mahathathvam) and Prakruthi containing Sathva, Rajas and Thammas is called Alingam].    
  20. Having knowledge as the form is called Dhrasta (Purusha) or who perceives using the knowledge of Buddhi is called as Dhrasta (Purusha).
  21. Drushyam is for the benefit of Purusha.
  22. This so called Drushyam is destroyed in the case of a Purusha who got salvation but it is still present for those who did not get salvation.
  23. Swashakthi (having its own strength) is called Prakruthi and Swāmishakthi (who owns the Swashakthi for the purpose of Bhōgam and Apavargam) is called Purusha. The subjective and objective relation between Dhrasta (Purusha) and Drushyam (Prakruthi) is called attachment. [This attachment is not the same as the attachment between cloth and cotton. It is different and is something like food and consumer.]
  24. Avidya is the reason for this attachment.
  25. Destruction of this Avidya will cause destruction of this attachment and the produced detachment is called Hāna. This Hāna is nothing but salvation of the Purusha whose true form is knowledge.
  26. The point that Prakruthi and Purusha are different will achieve the Aviplava Hāna. [Viplava means craving filled ignorance. Aviplava means without this polluted ignorance] 
  27. The determinant Yōgi will achieve seven states of Pragnya. [Jignyāsa, Jihāsa, Prēpsa, Chikērsha, Shōkam, Bhayam and Vikalpam. Jignyāsa means curiosity. Since the Yōgi understood what ignorance is, he will lose curiosity to know further. Therefore he is no more curious and is free from curiosity. Jihāsa means rejection. Once the Yōgi understands the reason for Avidya and rejects them, he has nothing else to reject. Therefore he is free from rejection. Prēpsa means achievement. When the Yōgi achieves salvation, he has nothing else to achieve and is free from the desire of achievement. Chikērsha means duty minded. Once the Yōgi gets salvation he is free from duties. All these four types of Pragnya are referred to as Kārya Vimukthi Pragnya. Kārya Vimukthi means free from results. Here result is “Result due to Karma”. Shōkam means grief. Bhayam means fear and Vikalpam imagining objects that do not exist. When a Yōgi is free from these three (Shōkam, Bhayam and Vikalpam) then a Yōgi is said to have achieved Chitha (Manassu or mind) Vimukthi Pragnya.]
  28. The tools for Yōga will be given in the forth coming theorems. When a Yōgi practices them he will be free of Avidya and will be enlightened with Samyak Gnyāna.
  29. Yama, Niyama, Āsana, Prānnāyāma, Prathyāhāra, Dhāranna, Dhyāna and Samādhi are called the eight Angas (parts or ideas in this case) to achieve Yōga.
  30. Yamas are five and are respectively Ahimsa (Not harming any life with body, mind and with words), Sathyam (When wanting to tell something, then telling it as is seen or as is heard or as is thought or think as it is seen or heard or felt), Asthēyam (Not stealing others property which includes women, money, wealth, inventions etc.,), Brahmacharyam (Not allowing any type of genital organ misuse or in other words not thinking and doing sexual activity with any other woman other than his wife that to in accordance with season, time and acceptance of the woman) and Aparigraha (Not accepting pleasures more than what is required for the body).
  31. The above said Yamas should not be sized due to Jāthi (type), Dēsha (place), Kāla (time), and Samaya (sign). If these are not sized then the Yamas come under Mahāvratha. [Some people eat fish and omit eating flesh of other animals. This does not satisfy the condition of Ahimsa. This is called sizing of Jāthi. Some people eat meat in a foreign country but not in India. This is called sizing of Dēsha. Some people eat meat only on a Sunday but not other days. This is called sizing of Kāla. Some people encourage others for eating meat but they will not eat meat. This is called sizing of Samaya.]
  32. Shoucham (cleanliness), Sonthōsham (happiness), Thappassu (penance), Swādhyāya (learning about God from scholars and reading Shāstras and meditating on ‘AUM’) and Ēshwara Prannidhānam (Dedicating all the Karmas to God and rejecting the results). These are the five Niyamās. [Shoucham is of two types. One is outside cleanliness which refers to keeping the body clean by taking proper bath at regularly in the morning and evening. Also eating Sāthvic food and keeping the stomach clean is considered as outside cleanliness. Being friendly and kind to all the living beings is called inside cleanliness. Being content with what is earned and not trying to earn more than what is required to live is called Sonthōsham. Bearing hotness and coldness, insults and praises, hunger and thirst etc., is called Thappassu.]
  33. While Yōgi is practicing Yama and Niyama, he will face resistance from Vitharka (Those which are opposite to Yamas and Niyamās). Then the Yōgi should recollect the loss that will occur if yielded to the resistances and once again determine and follow the practice of Yama and Niyama. 
  34. Himsa (Opposite to Ahimsa) or violence is done either by oneself (called Krutham) or by others request (Kāritham) or by others encouragement (Anumōditham) and is done due to greed (Lōbham) or due to anger (Krōdham) or by desire (Mōham).
  35. All living beings leave their enmity in the presence of a Yōgi who is successful in practicing Ahimsa. This is the power of practicing Ahimsa.
  36.  The Yōgi who achieved the power of practicing Sathyam gets the power of voice. If he says a bad person to become good it will happen without fail. Similarly if he says a suffering person to heal it will happen without fail. This is the power of practicing Sathyam.
  37. The Yōgi who achieved the power of practicing Asthēyam will be able to get the best wealth just by thinking.
  38. The Yōgi who achieved the power of Brahmacharyam will get the greatest ability. [It is said that the Yōgi  who achieved the power of Brahmacharyam will achieve eight types of Siddhi  viz., Thāram, Suthāram, Thārathāram, Ramyakam, Sadāmudhitham, Pramōdam, Pramuditham and Pramōdamānam. Given below is Atharva Vēda Mantra which gives the importance of Brahmacharyam.
  39. Indriya’s destroyed the Mruthyu of their abilities with the help of Brahmacharyam and Jēvāthma made the human body more pleasurable with the help of Brahmacharyam.]     
  40. The Yōgi who achieved the power of Aparigraha will be able to know the secret of his birth.
  41. The Yōgi  who achieved the power of outside Shoucham will be able to know about the deceases a human body gets and will be able to reject contact with other human bodies and will be relieved of bodily desires.
  42. The Yōgi who achieved the power of inside Shoucham will get a pure mind and then subsequently he will get focus, control on senses and the ability to recognize Āthma.
  43. The Yōgi who achieved the power of Sonthōsham will get maximum pleasure.
  44. The Yōgi who achieved the power of Thappassu will get the best bodily appearance and great skills in doing things.
  45. The Yōgi who achieved the power of Swādhyāya will be able to visualize the nature of elements and materials and will be able to see other Siddhis and get help from them.
  46. The Yōgi who achieved the power of Ēshwara Prannidhānam will get Sampragnyātha Samādhi.
  47. The posture that gives stable pleasure is called Āsana.
  48. A Yōgi can achieve Āsana by learning to be stable (without motion) in a particular posture and also by looking at animals, birds and other creature’s for stable postures.
  49. When a Yōgi achieves Āsana he will not be disturbed by Dwandwas like hotness and coldness, happiness and suffering, hunger and thirst etc.
  50.  After the Yōgi achieves Āsana he should control the natural process of inhaling and exhaling of air by doing Prānnāyāma. [Rēchakam is forcing the air out of the lungs as if one vomits the food with force. Pūrakam is filling the lungs with maximum possible capacity. Kumbhakam is to keep the air from either entering or leaving the lungs. First process of Prānnāyāma is to do Rēchakam and subsequently Kumbhakam. When cannot sustain the air outside any more slowly inhale and fill the lungs with air. Then repeat the process. In the second type of Prānnāyāma one has to perform Pūrakam and keep the air in the lungs by doing Kumbhakam. When cannot withhold the air anymore inside the lungs slowly exhale the air out and then repeat the process. In the third type of Prānnāyāma one has to keep the outside air out and inside air inside with the help of Kumbhakam.]
  51. All the three types of Prānnāyāma have the limitation of space, time and numbers and are lengthy and short accordingly. [The distance a cotton piece would travel is the limitation of the space for Rēchakam when it is performed. For Pūrakam the entire inside of the body is the limitation of the space. For Kumbhakam the space limitation is the entire inside and outside space of the body. The time taken to clearly rub the entire knee cap three times and snapping the fingers once is called one Māthra. If Kumbhakam can be kept for 12 Māthra then it is called Udghātha. If the time take is about 12 Māthra then the Udghātha is called Mruduvu (Soft). If it is 24 Māthra then the Udghātha is called Madhyama (Medium) and if it is 36 Māthra then the Udghātha is called Thīvra (Intense). Similarly the number of Udghātha is the number limitation.]
  52. Forth type of Prānnāyāma is called Kēvala Kumbhakam. This is different from Kumbhakam. Kumbhakam yields for inhaling and exhaling but Kēvala Kumbhakam does not. But the space, time and numbers are same.
  53. For the Yōgi who achieved Prānnāyāma, Kleshas (sufferings) will become weak and get destroyed.  
  54. For the Yōgi who achieved Prānnāyāma, Manassu (mind) will get more ability and will become stable.
  55. Due to the above (Sādhana Yōgam) said processes a Yōgi’s Indriyās and Manassu do not respond to the sensual matters. This state of a Yōgi is called Prathyāhāra. 

Vibhūthi Pādam: In this Yōgam Dhāranna, Dhyāna and Samādhi which are collectively called as “Samyama” are given in detail. Yama, Niyama, Asana, Prānnāyāma and Prathyāhāra are outer tools. Dhāranna, Dhyāna and Samādhi are called inner tools.

  1. Leaving the outside matter and focusing the Manassu on one of the body inner parts or on some stellar object is called Dhāranna. [Because of following Yama, Niyama etc., a Yōgi’s mind will become pious and will be able to focus on heart, backbone, neck, Sun, Stars etc., and take their forms. This act is called Dhāranna.]
  2. The flow of knowledge that occurs due to Dhāranna is called Dhyāna. [The flow of knowledge is about the object that is in Dhāranna.]
  3. When in Dhyāna if the knowledge of the object appears to disappear and only the object is perceived then the state is called Samādhi. [When the Manassu is focused and if the Yōgi is able to distinguish the three viz., Dhyātha (The person performing Dhyāna), Dhyāna (meditation) and Dhyēyam (the object that is focused on) and is able to know that he is acquiring the knowledge of the object then the state is said to be Dhyāna. And if this knowledge also disappears and only the object is available then that state is called Samādhi.]
  4. Having one object as aim with the three states Dhāranna, Dhyāna and Samādhi is called Samyama.
  5. Because of Samyama, Samādhi Pragnya is achieved.
  6. As given previously in Samādhi Yōgam, the Yōgi should practice Samyama in the following sequence. (a) Savitharka Sampragnyātha Samādhi, (b) Nirvitharka Sampragnyātha Samādhi, (c) Sūkshma (minute) Savitharka Sampragnyātha Samādhi and (d) Sūkshma (minute) Nirvitharka Sampragnyātha Samādhi.
  7. Therefore the trebles Dhāranna, Dhyāna and Samādhi are referred as inner tools in achieving Yōgam.
  8. But the trebles Dhāranna, Dhyāna and Samādhi are outer tools for Asampragnyātha Samādhi.    
  9. The instant Asampragnyātha Samādhi is dawn Sampragnyātha Samādhi will be on decline and Para Virāgyam will be on rise. This is called Parinnāmam (evolution) of Para Virāgyam and the instance in which Para Virāgyam is present that instance is called Nirōdha Kshanna. At this instance the mind is called Nirōdha Kshanna Chitham (Manassu) and is a Dharma Parinnāmam. [Except Āthma everything else is changing with time. This evolution of the object is of three type’s viz. Dharma, Lakshanna and Avastha. When the object loses its previous Dharma and gets new Dharma it is called Dharma Parinnāmam. Evolved Dharma loses its futuristic character and becomes a present character. This is called Lakshanna (Character) Parinnāmam. This new character of Dharma also changes and this change of state is called Avastha Parinnāmam.]
  10. Because of decline of Sampragnyātha Samādhi, Manassu (mind) will be in pleasant state in Asampragnyātha Samādhi.
  11. Decline of scattered mind to dawn of Focus is called Samādhi Parinnāmam (evolution) of Samādhi Manassu.
  12. In the Focused stable mind, the knowledge of the same object will be evolving and sinking. This continues until the Ēkāgrathā (focused) Samādhi is disturbed. The knowledge which is sinking is called Shāntham and the one that is evolving is called Uditham. Since these two are about the same object these are called equals. These two equals become as Dharma in the stable mind. That is why this state is called Ēkāgrathā Parinnāmam.
  13. As described in the previous theorems, just like Chitham, Pancha Bhūthās and Senses will also have Dharma, Lakshanna and Avastha Parinnāmam.
  14. Dharmi is that thing or object which has connection with Shāntham, Uditham and Avyapadeshyam. [After completing its business which retires that is called Shāntham. The one which is dawn and is presently doing its business is called Uditham. And the one which is in the form of Shakthi (energy) and that cannot be described is called Avyapadeshyam.]
  15. Each one of the Dharma, Lakshanna and Avastha Parinnāmam has many differences within itself. This is because of the order in the past, present and future.
  16. When a Yōgi achieves Samyama in the trebles Dharma, Lakshanna and Avastha Parinnāmam then he will know every object’s past, present and futuristic Dharma, Lakshanna and Avastha Parinnāmam.
  17. A Sound and the meaning of the sound and the knowledge of these two are in reality separable. A normal person cannot grasp them separately. By achieving Samyama in these three, a Yōgi will be able to acquire them separately and can hear the sound made by any living being and the knowledge of its meaning separately. That means a Yōgi can understand every language including that of animals, birds and insects in the Universe.
  18. By achieving Samyama in his own nature, a Yōgi can know his past births. Similarly by achieving Samyama in others nature a Yōgi can know their past and present birth.
  19. By achieving Samyama on others mind a Yōgi can read others mind.
  20. Even though others mind is read by the Yōgi he cannot know on what the other person is interested. But the Yōgi will know whether the other person is interested in something or not. If the Yōgi focuses on others interest then he will be able to know even that.
  21. When a Yōgi achieves Samyama in the color of his skin, he will become invisible to others.
  22. When a Yōgi achieves Samyama in Sōpakrama (After experiencing lot of pleasures and displeasures if only less Karma remains to be performed then it is called Sōpakrama) and Nirupakrama (This is opposite to Sōpakrama), he will know the place and time of his death. Also he will know it by Arishtam. [When you close your ears with your palms you will hear burning sound. Also when you close your eyes and press them delicately with fingers you can see red color. If this happens death is not close by. If it does not then death is close. This is called Ādhyāthmika Arishtam. When a person sees deadly giants or dead mother or father in front of him then it is called Ādhibouthika Arishtam. Then he can know about the death. If a person sees the universe in a chaos then it is called Ādhidivika Arishtam. Then also he can know about death. These three kinds of Arishtam occur even for normal persons and will be able to about death. But a Yōgi can specify clearly about the place, time and number of deaths that will occur.]
  23. When a Yōgi achieves Samyama in the natures described in 33 theorem of Samādhi Yōgam, he will become successful in making others happy.
  24. When a Yōgi achieves Samyama in the Strength of an elephant or lion, he will get the strength of these animals.
  25. When a Yōgi achieves Samyama in the minute particles like subatomic particles and so he will get the knowledge of those particles.
  26. When a Yōgi achieves Samyama in the Surya (Sun) he will get the knowledge of the three worlds (Pruthvi (Planets), Anthariksham (Vacuum or Space) and Dyuo (Sun and Stars).
  27. When a Yōgi achieves Samyama in the Chandra (Moon) he will get clear picture of the stars.
  28. When a Yōgi achieves Samyama in the Druva Nakshathram (North Star) he will get the knowledge of the motion of Stars.
  29. When a Yōgi achieves Samyama in the Naval he will get the knowledge and clear picture of the matter inside the human body.
  30. When a Yōgi achieves Samyama in the Kanta Kūpam (Inner part of throat) he will not suffer from hunger or thirst.
  31. When a Yōgi achieves Samyama in the Kūrmanādyam (A nerve in the shape of tortoise and is between Kanta Kūpam and chest) he will get stability of mind and body.
  32. When a Yōgi achieves Samyama in the Ūrdhvajyothi (Light present in the Brahma hole) he will be able to see other Yōgis and Siddhis.
  33. Also when a Yōgi achieves Samyama in the Ūrdhvajyothi he will get Prāthibha (extraordinary) Gnyana and will know even the minute objects (belonging to past, present and future) and their knowledge.
  34. When a Yōgi achieves Samyama in the heart he will know the structure and activities of mind.
  35. Even though Buddhi and Jēvāthma are different they appear to be same. When a Yōgi achieves Samyama in the Jēvāthma he will be able to know the Jēvāthma as a separate entity than Buddhi.
  36. Before a Yōgi can see Jēvāthma he will get extraordinary powers in his senses and mind (The mind power is called Prāthibha or Prathibha).
  37. But these powers are resistances for a Yōgi who wants to achieve salvation.
  38. When a Yōgi achieves Samyama in the mind he will get freedom from the bondages of Dharma and Adharma and will be able to make his mind move from one body to the other along with his senses.
  39. When a Yōgi achieves Samyama in the Udāna Vāyu he will not suffer from deep waters, quick sands, fire, sharp objects etcetera. Also he can decide the place and time of his death. He can walk on water, fire, air just like he walks on ground. [The thing that is responsible for life and activities of human body is called Prānna. This Prānna is divided into five kind’s viz. Prānna, Samāna, Apāna, Udāna and Vyāna. Prāna is spread from the tip of the nose to the heart and is responsible for sustaining of the life. Samāna is spread from heart to naval and is responsible in sending the digested materials to the whole body. Apāna is spread from naval to feet and is responsible for excretion and semen. Udāna is spread from the tip of the nose to the tip of head and is responsible for eyes and other parts of the brain. Vyāna is spread throughout the body and is responsible in cleaning the body. In this Prāna is the main Vāyu and if it exits then others will follow it.]
  40. If a Yōgi wins Samāna with Samyama then he will be radiating like fire.
  41. When a Yōgi achieves Samyama in the relation between Ākāsham and Ear he will be able to hear the minutest sounds in the Universe. Similarly with Samyama of other senses he will be able to achieve wonders in the Universe.
  42. When a Yōgi achieves Samyama in the relation between body and Ākāsham he will be able to make his body small or big and move in the space as he likes.
  43.  When a Yōgi wants his Manassu (mind) to be outside his body then it is called Vidēha Dhāranna. With the help of this he can put his mind outside the body and get rid of the Rājasic and Thāmasic Klesha Karmas.
  44. When a Yōgi achieves Samyama in the five (Pancha) states of the Pancha Bhūthās, he will be able to control them. [Gandham (smell) for Pruthvi, Rasam (taste) for Jal, Rūpam (vision) Agni, Sparsha (touch) for Vāyu and Shabdam (sound) for Ākāsham are the first state of Pancha Bhūthās. Toughness and rigidity for Pruthvi, Snēham (viscosity) for Jal, Ushtnam (hotness) for Agni etcetera are the second state of Pancha Bhūthās. Paramānnus (subatomic particles) or Thanmātrās are the third state of Pancha Bhūthās. Property Trebles called as Gunnathrayam (Sathva, Rājas and Thammas) are the reason for the Paramānnus and are the forth state of Pancha Bhūthās. Both Properties and Thanmātrās are implied in the Pancha Bhūthās and this is the fifth state of these.]
  45. When a Yōgi is able to control the Pancha Bhūthās, he will get the following Siddhis. (1) Annima (To become as small as subatomic particles), (2) Laghima (To become lighter than air), (3) Mahima (To be felt as infinity), (4) Prāpthi (To acquire every matter in the Universe), (5) Prākāmyam (To fulfill desires without wasting), (6) Vashithvam (To be able to arrange Bhūthās and Bhouthikas (Physical matter), (7) Ēshithruthvam (To be able to produce, control and destroy Bhūthās and Bhouthikas) and (8) Sathyasamkalpatha (To think like God) are the Ashta (eight) Siddhis. Also he will gain Kāyasampath and will not be pained by the properties of Pancha Bhūthās. [When a Yōgi achieves Ashta Siddhis he can enter earth by piercing it without any pain. Similarly he can enter into Jal without any viscosity. Hotness will not burn him and Vāyu cannot move him. He can fly in the Vacuum invisibly. He can change the energy of any matter but cannot change the matter itself.]
  46. Rūpam (Beauty), Lāvanyam (healthy proportionate body parts), Balam (Immense strength) and Vajrasamhanathvam (Body becomes as strong as diamond) are called Kāyasampath.    
  47. When a Yōgi achieves Samyama in the Grahannam (Sound, vision etc., are properties. Acquiring the properties is Grahannam), Swarūpam (Senses are Swarūpam), Asmitha (The reason for the senses is Asmitha), Anvayam (The trebles Sathva, Rajas and Thammassu) and Arthavathvam (implied in the trebles) he will be having complete control over the senses.
  48. Because of complete control on Senses a Yōgi will be able move his body with the same speed as mind and is called as Manōjavithvam. He can use the senses without the help of the body and is called as Vikarannabāvah. He will be able to control all changes that occur in the nature and this state is called as Pradhānajayascha.
  49. A Yōgi who got the clarity about the difference between Buddhi and Purusha cannot be yielded by anyone. There is nothing unknown that is to be known by him. He can command anything in this world and will be in motion throughout the universe.
  50. Because of the above said achievements a Yōgi is in a position to attain salvation.
  51. Once a Yōgi achieves Asampragnyā Samādhi he should not yield to the hospitalities shown by normal persons. Normal people will be able to recognize the powers of this Yōgi and try to get benefits from him. They will show undue respect and try to attract him with all sorts of hospitalities. In such cases if a Yōgi yields and gives up his powers for pacifying the desires of these persons then he will be trying to maintain this status of attachment and lose interest in salvation. The summary is that a Yōgi can help people but should not be mislead by the undue hospitalities.
  52.  When a Yōgi achieves Samyama in the Kshanna, he will know the specialty of each object in the Universe. [Least time possible in the universe. It is the time taken by a Paramānnu to spin once around it or displace from one position to another. The uncut chain of such events is called Kramam.]
  53. Two similar objects which are identical in the type, property and place cannot be identified separately. But a Yōgi who achieved Samyama in the time can identify separately.
  54. Tārakam (Knowledge gained by one’s own talent or the knowledge gained without others teachings), Sarvavishyam (All materials knowledge), Sarvadhāvishayam (Knowledge of past, present and future) and Akramancha (Knowing everything at one instance) are called as Vivēkam. [This Vivēkam is the complete knowledge that anyone should ever know and Sampragnyātha is the summary of this knowledge.]   
  55. For achieving salvation Vivēkam is not compulsory. In a Yōgi who could distinguish Buddhi from Purusha, the ability for getting salvation will be present.

Kivalya Pādam: In this chapter the author explains about salvation and Siddhis.

  1. There are five types of Siddhis viz. (1) Janmajam (This Siddhi is natural and is either through knowledge or through action the body of a Yōgi gets powers.), (2) Ōshadijam (By consuming the ashes of materials like mercury and other medicinal plants the body of the Yōgi gets the powers.), (3) Mantrajam (This Siddhi is achieved by Swādhyāya), (4) Thapōjam (Siddhi achieved by Thappassu) and (5) Samādhijam (Siddhis explained in Vibhūthi Yōgam).
  2. Due to Siddhi the body parts of a Yōgi acquire entirely different structures than their previous counter parts which are related to new evolution. For the body Pancha Bhūthās are Prakruthi and for the senses Ahankāra is the Prakruthi. These two acquire newness according to their nature.
  3. A Yōgi need not to do anything special to acquire newness in his body and senses. As he achieves Siddhi it happens by itself.
  4. Yōgi can construct different bodies simultaneously and can put different minds for them simultaneously to complete all his remaining Karmas.    
  5. Yōgi will construct a Master mind to control all other minds that were introduced in the other bodies and interact with them to fulfill the Karmas.
  6. Except Samādhijam all other Siddhis cannot get Salvation.
  7. The mind of a Yōgi in the state of Samādhi Siddhi is clear from Krishnam (sin) and Shuklam (virtue). Whereas other’s mind is either Krishnam or Shuklam or both.
  8. When a normal person completes his Karmas in this birth he will take the next birth according to the Karma result. It may be of any form (like an animal or tree or insect or human) and depends on the Karmas performed.
  9. The Karmas performed by normal persons give impressions in the mind and are carried forward to the next birth. These impressions will decide about the type of birth he will take.
  10. Birth and death have no beginning and ending and the impressions in the mind are also the same.
  11. Hēthuvu (Kleshas and Karmas), Phalam (result which includes birth, lifespan and pleasures and displeasures), Āshrayam (mind) and Ālambanam (properties of materials) are associated with impressions. When Hēthuvu is destroyed all others are destroyed and the impressions are lost.
  12. When we say impressions are lost we mean they do not exist in the present. They still exist in the past and future. Therefore impressions are not lost as a whole. That means the impressions that exist in the present time are only responsible for experiencing Karmas.
  13. All impressions are the images of the treble properties (Sāthvic, Rājasic and Thāmasic Gunnas).
  14. Even though the properties are three the matter in which they exist is one. For example sound is only one even though it is the evolution of these trebles.
  15. Even though the object is same the knowledge in the minds is different. That means object and mind are not the same. [This can be proved simply by knowing that the same object is seen by two different minds simultaneously. If we say all minds are same, then every mind should see the same object simultaneously. Since this does not happen it is understood that mind is different for every person and mind and objects are different. ]
  16. When an object is observed by the mind it is not solely under the control of one mind. If it is then what happens to that object when the mind is focused on to other object? Will it be destroyed or remains as it is?
  17. Therefore it is clear that when the mind is focused on to some object then the object is known otherwise it remains unknown but is not destroyed nor the object itself is not the mind.
  18. Since Jēvāthma does not change and the only changing thing is mind, the business of mind is always known to Jēvāthma.
  19. Chittam (mind) is the matter for knowledge and is just like any other matter in the world which changes and does not possess knowledge or the capacity to perform or it is not self radiant. Chittam is radiated because of Jēvāthma.
  20. Also mind and its business cannot be known simultaneously.
  21. If it is possible then the mind will know another mind. Then the second mind will know the third mind and so on. Therefore mind and its business cannot be known simultaneously.
  22. Purusha is Drashta (Viewer) and mind (Manassu) is its vision.
  23. Purusha is Drashta (Viewer) and sound, light etc., are its vision and mind behaves as if it is the Grahētha (receiver), Grahannam (matter to be received) and Grāhyam (that which is received).
  24. Manassu (mind) is useful along with other body organs for giving pleasure and displeasure for Purusha.
  25. Once the Yōgi achieves Vivēkam all doubts about himself will be answered.
  26. Once the Yōgi achieves Vivēkam his mind will stop thinking about worldliness and moves towards salvation.
  27. After achieving Vivēkam one may still have the impressions in the mind.
  28. With Kriyā Yōga and other techniques described earlier all impressions should be erased just as the Kleshas were erased.
  29. On achieving Vivēkam a Yōgi should understand it as a part of the change towards salvation and should show no interest in it. Then he will get a state called Dharma Mēgham and will be able to achieve salvation.
  30. Once Dharma Mēgha Samādhi is achieved Avidya, Klesha etc., will not come back. In this state a Yōgi is said to be in salvation while his body is still alive.
  31. In this state the mind gets immense power and it can access anything in the universe.
  32. In this state the Pancha Bhūthās will not form another body for the Yōgi’s future birth.
  33. Evolution is of three types viz. Dharma Parinnāmam, Lakshanna Parinnāmam and Avasthā Parinnāmam. The sequence of these evolutions is called Kramam.
  34. Dissolving senses, Buddhi etc., in their original form or Jēvāthma without all these attachments is called salvation.

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